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The IUP Journal of Physics
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The Weyl-Lanczos relations are systems in consonance with the spacetime variables. Lanczos showed that in an arbitrary spacetime there exists a potential (kabx) not unique to the Weyl tensor. In the first paper, “Lanczos Spintensor for Several Spacetimes”, the authors I Guerrero-Moreno, J López Bonilla and A Rangel-Merino, employed the Newman-Penrose formalism to obtain the Lanczos potential for well-known spacetimes of general relativity. The treatment for analysis is tensorial and makes use of the Weyl-Lanczos equations. Relationship is derived between the components of Lanczos spintensor and rotation coefficients.

High frequency switched-capacitor applications require amplifiers with fast settling response times. In the second paper, “Comparative Analysis of Cascode Operational Transconductance Amplifiers for HF Switched-Capacitor Filters”, Sandeep K Arya and Rekha Kansal, present a comparison of cascade Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTA) topologies for high speed applications using T-Spice simulations. A multipath OTA with enhanced performance parameters has been presented.

Rubber is extensively used in many applications because of its unique performance and specific properties like energy absorption, damping and long service life at ambient temperature. The blending of different rubber materials finds wide applications as insulating material in electrical appliances. In the third paper, “Dielectric Characterization of the Blend, Natural Rubber with Nitrile Butadiene Rubber”, S Gunasekaran, A Kala and R K Natarajan, investigated the effects of temperature on the dielectric properties of the newly blended rubber material, natural rubber with nitrile butadiene at 80:20 concentrations.

The crystals are grown using gel method to achieve perfection and uniformity. In tartrates, the conduction mechanism occurs not only through electron transport but also through proton displacement. Due to this, they exhibit ferroelectric and nonlinear optical characteristics.

In the fourth paper, “Study of Activation Energy from Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) for Barium Tartrate (BaC4H4O6) Crystals Grown by Gel Method”, the authors Atul Shah, I B Patel and Sunil Chaki, have presented their findings on Barium Tartrate crystals grown using gel method at ambient temperature. Thermal stability and kinetic parameters of these crystals were studied using TGA. Activation energy and frequency factor were calculated.

Neutrosophic probability is useful to those events which involve some degree of indeterminacy (unknown). This kind of probability is necessary because it provides a better approach than the classical probability to uncertain events. In the fifth paper, “An Introduction o the Neutrosophic Probability Applied to Quantum Physics: Revisited”, Florentin Smarandache generalized the classical and imprecise probability to the notion of neutrosophic probability in order to model Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle of particle behavior. The paper also shows how neutrosophic probability provides a better representation than classical probability to uncertain events.

In their research note, “On the Lorentz Transformations”, M Hernández-González, J López Bonilla and A Rangel-Merino have presented direct expressions to generate Lorentz transformations in special relativity using the Pauli matrices.

-- BVVSN Prabhakara Rao
Consulting Editor

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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.

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