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The IUP Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering:
A Review of Transition Metal-Doped In2O3-Based Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors
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Indium Oxide (In2O3)-based Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) have attracted a great deal of research attention and controversy over the past decade. These materials are of particular interest due to possibility of achieving transparent ferromagnetic property at room temperature. These materials are of particular interest for spintronic devices such as spin valves. This review focuses primarily on some Transition Metals (TMs) doped in In2O3 DMS samples in order to clarify which materials are prospective ferromagnetic.

 
 

Integrated circuits and high-frequency devices have had great success through controlling the charge of electrons in semiconductors, whereas the mass storage of information is realized by magnetic recording (hard disks, magnetic tapes and magneto-optical disks) using the spin of electrons in ferromagnetic materials in the field of information processing and communications (Janisch et al., 2005; and Ogale, 2010). Thus, the charge and spin of electrons can be used simultaneously to enhance the performance of devices. This is the key idea of spintronics, which is extensively expected to be the future solution to downscale existing microelectronic devices into nanoscale devices (Kapilashrami et al., 2009; Pandey et al., 2009; Tian et al., 2013; and Samariya et al., 2014). The principle requirement for fabricating such devices is efficient injection, transport, detection and manipulation of spin-polarized carriers in semiconductors at operational temperatures. This can be achieved by doping the semiconducting material with low concentration of Transition Metals (TMs), producing the commonly known Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) (Pearton et al., 2003; Singhal et al., 2010a; 2010b; and 2010c; and 2012; and Li et al., 2013).

DMS belong to a class of semiconductor in which ions are replaced by TM ions to retain both reasonable conductivity and room temperature ferromagnetism (Hideo, 2010). A lot of studies have been reported on DMS doped with TM such as II-VI: (Zn,Mn)Se, (Cd,Co)Se, (Hg,Fe)Te; IV-VI: (Sn,Mn)Te, (Pb,Mn)Te, (Pb,Eu)Te, etc. However, the preparation of these semiconductors requires special care and facilities. Therefore, in order to make economical device fabrication methods, oxide semiconductor-based DMS, i.e., Dilute Magnetic Oxide Semiconductors (DMOS), have been frequently used for the last few years.

 
 
 

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Journal, Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors, Transition metals, In2O3