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The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development :
Intervening Factors in Entrepreneurial Performance: An Exploratory Analysis of Women Self-Help Groups
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Improving the performance by identifying and removing the inhibiting constraints that would otherwise slow income-generating activities is currently a top priority area for leader-manager in the realm of running team works in general and for the Self-Help Groups (SHGs) involved in economic activity in the developing economies in particular. Rural women are increasingly taking interest in numerous entrepreneurial activities by creating a seamless process with their integration-minded colleagues. This study intends to identify the major factors that underlie the entrepreneurial performance of Women Self-Help Groups (WSHGs). Data was collected using questionnaire from 300 WSHGs using purposive sampling from all the districts of the northeastern state of Tripura to identify those contributing factors that are supportive to the congenial growth of the rural women entrepreneurs. The findings identified four major factors with 16 components and revealed that approaches and assessments towards training, marketing, financing and perceived managerial competencies relating to the operation and functioning of the collective business activities are strongly related to group savings, which in turn directly affects group performance. Perceived managerial or leadership competencies and practices were found to reflect both internal and external impediments, many of which relate to financing, marketing and training issues that are not within the control of the group. These results may have implications for improving the performance through more productive training, extended credit, expanding the markets and creative managerial initiatives, and warrant further research focusing on the activities of the WSHGs at regional and national level.

 
 
 

Rural women entrepreneurs in India enter into business mainly for two types of factors, i.e., pull factor and push factor. In pull factor, women are motivated and encouraged to start a business or any suitable economic activity for their financial independence and sustainability. In this case, women wish to utilize their free time for some economic benefit and social recognition. However, in push factor, women are compelled to take up the business in order to overcome the numerous difficulties they face and to meet their basic or emergency needs. However, rural women entrepreneurs experience numerous problems. Sweta (2010) in her study showed that recently women are increasingly taking interest in diverse income-generating activities like self-employment and entrepreneurship, in both traditional and non-traditional activities. As entrepreneurs, rural women face various problems and these problems get doubled because of her dual role as a wage earner and a homemaker. She needs to spare time and energy both for her business and domestic affairs. The women face constraints in aspects of financial, marketing, family, health, location, etc. For encouraging entrepreneurship among rural women, groups are targeted. Group entrepreneurship acts as a viable strategy for rural women. It also helps in contributing positively towards the economy. Moreover, it leads to multiplier effect in the generation of income of all the group members. But at the same time, rural woman entrepreneurs confront numerous constraints in establishing as well as successful by running their entrepreneurial activity. Narayanswamy (2007) categorized the constraints encountered by the Self-Help Group (SHG) members while performing the group activities as personal, social, economic, technological and marketing constraints. Sudan (2006) pointed out several difficulties faced by SHG members under SGSY like poor capacity building of SHGs, faulty selection of income-generating activities, inadequate bank credit, lack of training and skill development, no release of subsidy and matching grant, poor infrastructural support, poor recovery of loan, etc. Patil (2010) in her study notes that the challenges that affect most of the women entrepreneurs are time management, lack of guidance, no outside contacts, lack of security, negative attitudes, and less moral support.

 
 
 

Entrepreneurship Development Journal, Intervening Factors in Entrepreneurial Performance, An Exploratory Analysis, Women Self-Help Groups