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The IUP Journal of Telecommunications
Massive MIMO Challenges and Emerging Research Directions: A Review
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Advancement in information and communication systems leads to next generation wireless networks that should support higher capacity and data rate, low end-to-end latency, low infrastructure cost and high energy efficiency. To support next generation requirements, 5G will be the most prominent network based on massive MIMO (mMIMO). mMIMO has multiple number of antennas that help to fulfill the requirements of 5G, but there are some issues like pilot contamination, hardware impairments, inter-antenna correlation due to space constraints and non-orthogonal waveform design that needs to be rectified for utilizing advantages of mMIMO sufficiently. The paper reviews the various limitations and relevant techniques to solve these shortcomings of 5G wireless network.

 
 

Advancement in data services in the last few decades has led to the development of new generation wireless networks. Massive MIMO (mMIMO) supports higher Spectrum Efficiency (SE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) that are needed to maintain consistent connectivity to different types of wireless devices and services. In mMIMO, hundreds or thousands of Base Station (BS) antennas (M) simultaneously serve tens or hundreds of users (K) in the same time/frequency resource (mMIMO systems are shown in Figure 1). Hence, expensive systems are required at BS and cheap devices at single antenna user terminals. Wireless channels perform like near-deterministic in mMIMO because channel coefficients opt for near-orthogonal value to each other by placing a number of antennas at BS. Small-scale fading diminishes as the number of antennas grows at BS. User Terminals (UTs) are less than the number of antennas at BS, hence interference mitigation techniques are used to improve SE and EE. The number of antennas at BS is more, hence the radiated power is limited for each antenna, but beamforming gains help to enhance EE.

 
 

Telecommunications Journal,Massive MIMO (mMIMO), RF chain, Time Division Duplexing (TDD), Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD), Precoding, Antenna array .