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The IUP Journal of Structural Engineering :
Fine Aggregate Replacement with China Clay-Based Concrete: A Strength and Durability Study
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The utilization of industrial and agricultural waste produced by industrial process has been the focus of waste reduction research for economical, environmental and technical reasons. This is because over 300 million tons of industrial waste is being produced per annum by agricultural and industrial processes in India. The problem from continuous technological and industrial development is the disposal of waste material. With the increase in demand for construction materials, there is a strong need to utilize alternative materials for sustainable development. Advancements in technology not only help in improving human comforts but also harm the environment. The use of china clay industrial waste aggregate in construction industry has become popular and safe now. At present, construction industry is in need of finding a cost-effective material to enhance the strength of concrete. In this paper, the effect of china clay waste and the chemical admixture (superflo) on concrete has been investigated. Natural aggregate was replaced with china clay industrial waste in different percentages, namely, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. A comparison was made between the specimens of partially replaced fine aggregate and the same set of specimens admixed with superflo. The effect on mechanical properties and durability properties was reported.

 
 

China clay (Kaolin) waste is a product after purification of china clay from its ore, which is one of the major waste materials. The production of one ton pure china clay generates eight to nine tons of waste. Natural raw materials are becoming scarce, while around the world, millions of tons of inorganic wastes are produced everyday in mining, mineral processing and industrial activities, whose disposal is subject to ever stricter environmental legislation. However, some wastes are similar in composition to the natural raw materials used in the construction industries. Thus, upgrading wastes to alternative raw materials is of technological, economic and environmental interest. Mining and mineral processing wastes have traditionally been discarded in landfills and often dumped directly into ecosystems without adequate treatment. However, possible reuse or recycling alternatives should be investigated and implemented. Today, the reuse and recycling of wastes, after their potentialities have been detected and considered, is an activity that can contribute to reduce production costs, provide alternative raw materials for a variety of industrial sectors, conserve nonrenewable resources, save energy and improve public health. Kaolin is an important raw material in various industrial sectors. However, the kaolin mining and processing industry generates large amounts of waste. The kaolin industry, which processes primary kaolin, produces two types of wastes. The first type derives from the first processing step (separation of sand from ore). The second type of waste results from the second processing step, which consists of wet sieving to separate the finer fraction and purify the kaolin.

 
 

China clay, Compressive strength, Penetration, Sorptivity .