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The IUP Journal of English Studies
ISSN: 0973-3728
A ‘peer reviewed’ journal indexed on Elsevier,
and also distributed by EBSCO and Proquest Database

Mar'16

Previous Issues

The IUP Journal of English Studies, an academic initiative of the IUP, is an intellectual vehicle for informed critical evaluations of various areas of literature, English Language Teaching, translation studies relating to emerging and established genres. A fresh and invigorating evaluation of the contributions of writers and their significant writings are on offer in the Journal.

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  • Commonwealth Literature
  • Indian Writing in English
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Graphic Retellings of Durga Mythology in Contemporary Popular Culture
Toward an Alternative Classless Society Through Comics
“Not So Comical”: Tintin, Popular Culture, and the Othering of Spaces
Children’s Mind: Cultural Values in Chhota Bheem
Constructing Masculinity: Depiction of the Superheroes Superman and Batman
Autobiographical Elements in Maus and A Contract with God and Other Tenement Stories
Sociopolitical Reading of R K Laxman’s Common Man
Exploring Comics: A Revisit Through the Aesthetics and Educational Values Embedded in Peanuts
Reflections on the Emerging Trend in Comics Culture: Adaptation of Sholay into a Comic Book
Transformation of The Adventures of Tintin: The Secrets of the Unicorn into a Movie – A Comparative Analysis
Comics as a Powerful Tool to Enhance English Language Usage
Comics as a Means of Humor and Minimizing Classroom Anxiety
Comics as Resource for ELT Educators
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Contents
(Mar 2016)

Graphic Retellings of Durga Mythology in Contemporary Popular Culture

--Sugandha Sehgal

According to Shakti tradition in Hindu religious and philosophical thought, the ultimate reality of the cosmos is an all-pervading female spiritual energy that fills the cosmos, a female manifestation of the Supreme Being—‘Shakti.’ With the composition of the classical Sanskrit text Devi Mahatmyam by sage Markandeya in the sixth century, the worship of the female principle assumed new dimensions. This paper focuses on the mythological metanarrative of the Goddess with the aim of exploring the curious intersections between Hindu mythology and a cosmopolitan modernity as reflected in a select few comics of the late twentieth and early twenty-first century India. Taking Anant Pai’s Tales of Durga (Amar Chitra Katha) as the starting point, the paper explores the modernist appropriations of traditional Devi mythology in three works—Ganesh’s (2002) Tales of Amnesia, Virgin Comics’ Kali (2007), and Priya’s Shakti (2014)—and shows that a serious comics culture has arrived in India, turning the comics medium into a vehicle for social dialogue and cultural critique.

Article Price : Rs.50

Toward an Alternative Classless Society Through Comics

--Ena Dhankhar and Atikant Singh Bhati

Comics are conventionally associated with fun and amusement in India. A majority of the people consider comics to be meant only for children. Hence, serious social issues are generally not taken into consideration by the comic writers. A discriminatory and unjust caste system has been prevailing in India for centuries now. Autobiographies, memoirs, novels, and testimonials are often considered suitable genres by Dalit writers to convey their struggle against oppression. This paper attempts to show how comics can be used as a visual form of literature in promoting social and caste equality. Popular comics generally exclude Dalits and other marginalized sections of Indian society. The paper takes a close look at some of the comic issues of Amar Chitra Katha and a few other publications to point out such bias.

Article Price : Rs.50

“Not So Comical”: Tintin, Popular Culture, and the Othering of Spaces

--Nilanjan Chakraborty

The Tintin comic series by Hergé is probably one of the most famous comic series globally. Tintin’s detective sagas are as much a narrative of a sleuth in pursuit of criminals as they are a gaze into the cultural spaces of the countries that Tintin visits. And therein lies the scope for the readers to engage in a critical relationship with the author’s depiction of those spaces. Hergé’s delineation of Asia (Tibet), America (especially the Red Indians), or even South America is replete with cultural and sociological biases with racial overtones. Tintin as a ‘subject’ works by imbibing the colonial/White energy, journeying from the center (Europe) to the margins (non-European places). Behind the visual scope of engaging the children with ‘fantasy’ within a mode of popular culture is Hergé’s political standpoint of seeing the Other from a colonial standpoint, which can be critiqued, problematized, and interrogated through a postcolonial debate. This paper engages in such a debate as to how Hergé stereotypes the Other using colonial energy even when he writes within a popular cultural mode, with Capitalist interventionist strategy, to make his comics appeal to an audience who will consume the Other on the basis of “fantasy” and “unknowability,” thereby thriving on biased representation of non-colonial marginalized spaces.

Article Price : Rs.50

Children’s Mind: Cultural Values in Chhota Bheem

--M Abou Raihan Rinku and Aju Aravind

Watching cartoons and animations is the favorite pastime of many children. In the past, parents and immediate family members taught moral values and cultural ethos to children—a role which is now played by television. Indigenous cultural values can easily be nurtured in children’s minds through popular cultural artifacts like cartoons. But cartoons are not just sources of entertainment; they also educate and sometimes feed ideologically loaded messages. Hence, studying the content of children’s television programs, especially cartoons, has become an interesting and challenging area in the field of academic research. This paper tries to identify the indigenous cultural values portrayed in the animated series Chhota Bheem.

Article Price : Rs.50

Constructing Masculinity: Depiction of the Superheroes Superman and Batman

--Jonita Aro M

Masculinity is a set of characteristics, based on the standards set by the society, that defines a ‘man.’ These characteristics lead to what one may call gender roles. Various institutions like family, schools, and workplace reinforce the gender roles. One such medium is ‘popular culture,’ in particular ‘comics.’ This paper discusses the concept of ‘constructing masculinity’ and the contribution of comics, which is an aspect of society, to the same. The paper shows, by analyzing the depiction of superheroes Batman and Superman, one the archetypal superhero and the other the iconic superhero, that gender is culturespecific. The paper also examines the role of comics in the construction of masculinity and its contribution to imbibing and reinforcing gender stereotypes.

Article Price : Rs.50

Autobiographical Elements in Maus and A Contract with God and Other Tenement Stories

--Anupama R

While an autobiography is the story of oneself, graphic narratives are independent stories—which can be fiction or nonfiction—that combine the forces of words and images. Autographics, in turn, is a combination of these two genres and enables the authors/artists to persuade their readers to see and believe in their memories of the past events, of their hopes and dreams, by relying heavily on images and words. This paper analyzes the autobiographical elements in two such graphic narratives, Maus by Art Spiegelman and A Contract with God and Other Tenement Stories by Eisner Will, by comparing their narrative techniques, style, and characterization. Both Spiegelman and Will are Jews and depict in their works issues which were of serious concern to the nineteenth century society, such as denial of ethnic identity to Jewish people, racial discrimination, disillusionment, and violence, portraying them through powerful images and words.

Article Price : Rs.50

Sociopolitical Reading of R K Laxman’s Common Man

--Preetha Rewins

This paper proposes a sociopolitical discourse on R K Laxman’s Common Man. The pocket cartoons featuring the ‘Common Man’ made their foray into the Indian consciousness in 1951 through a daily comic strip called “You Said It” in The Times of India. The comic strip was an earnest attempt to encapsulate the myriad images of post-independent India through the lens of the Common Man. This comic strip achieved iconic status as it effectively captured the changing psyche of Indians, and the simple dhoti-clad middle-aged Common Man turned out to be a representative figure echoing the dreams, fears, hopes, and frustrations of the ordinary Indian citizen. Moreover, as the mute spectator to all the social, political, and economic events around him, the Common Man’s silence mirrored the state of vulnerability of the world’s largest democracy.

Article Price : Rs.50

Exploring Comics: A Revisit Through the Aesthetics and Educational Values Embedded in Peanuts

--S Muthukumaravel and Suja Mathew

Curious revisit to the comics through the ages makes an interesting study. Comics were once thought of as meant only for children or just for entertainment. There are those who are even now of the opinion that there is nothing to be learned from the comic section of a newspaper. However, this perception has changed over the years. Many have come to understand that comics can teach us, besides providing us entertainment. The importance and social relevance of comics and comic characters are increasingly being felt. Comic strips talk about everything—moral and ethical values, family, politics, gender issues, psychology, science, myths, valor, sports, and many more. This paper focuses on the characters of the comic strip Peanuts. The paper analyzes, through each character, traits such as emotional stability, social behavior, acclimatization, integrity, amiableness, self-discipline, and assiduousness, and discusses what we can learn from them.

Article Price : Rs.50

Reflections on the Emerging Trend in Comics Culture: Adaptation of Sholay into a Comic Book

--Benazir Manzar and Aju Aravind

Sholay (1975), one of the most acclaimed films of Bollywood, has been adapted into a graphic novel. The interpretation of Sholay as a graphic novel (2014) is the emphatic elaboration of the visual culture. The adaptation reveals not only the development and popularity of graphic novels in India but also the popularity of cinema and its visual effect. The comic book version of the character Gabbar Singh, the villain in the film, has been given a new look. This paper deals with the adaptation of the film Sholay into a comic book and its reception by the readers. The paper also focuses on the modes of visual pleasure and reflection of graphic narratives.

Article Price : Rs.50

Transformation of The Adventures of Tintin: The Secrets of the Unicorn into a Movie – A Comparative Analysis

--Madeswaran R and Kanimozhi T

Comics provide feast not only to the mind but also to the curious eyes. By providing creative illustrations, the genre voluntarily opens the gates to a world of fantasy; it converts the abstract story into a concrete one. Visual literature, in fact, increases the level of comprehension among the learners of a new language. Transformation of comics into films is a growing trend. This paper compares the movie version of The Secrets of the Unicorn, from the famous comic series The Adventures of Tintin, with the original printed version and analyzes the merits and demerits of the conversion. The paper also explores the advantages of innovations and stresses the need for preserving the tradition.

Article Price : Rs.50

Comics as a Powerful Tool to Enhance English Language Usage

--P A Sarada

The key to successful communication is intensive listening and keen observation. A lot of English language usage, such as vocabulary, grammatical structure, intonation, accent, and interpretation, is learned easily by listening. New words and expressions are learned easily by reading and listening to simplified language, dialogues, and comic strips. The teacher of English should be judicious in choosing the comics because some of them with idiomatic expressions are difficult to understand. It has been observed that serious and adventurous comics are easy to understand than funny ones. Students who find it difficult to read each word and comprehend the theme in a passage or a story or a narration will find it easy in a medium of comics. Writing a paragraph, writing a set of instructions, writing a set of recommendations, and dialogue writing are taught easily by using comics as a literacy tool. This paper discusses how using suitable comic strips in the teaching and learning process will enhance the vocabulary enrichment, grammatical structures, and the language usage of engineering students.

Article Price : Rs.50

Comics as a Means of Humor and Minimizing Classroom Anxiety

--Pranab Kanti Deb

Various studies have identified anxiety as one of the negative factors affecting the acquisition of second language, i.e., English. Anxiety is associated with feelings of uneasiness, frustration, self-doubt, apprehension, and worry. Classroom anxiety can be minimized if the teachers can create a positive classroom environment, for a cheerful and non-threatening environment encourages the learners to be assertive and participate in the use of English without any fear of condemnation or being ridiculed. This paper discusses how comics can be used in English language classroom to create a more comfortable and productive classroom environment. It shows how using comic materials in a communicative language classroom has many benefits such as low student anxiety, spontaneous participation of students, better verbal and written communication skills, improved retention, increased joy of learning, and a more congenial classroom atmosphere.

Article Price : Rs.50

Comics as Resource for ELT Educators

--Revathy Ravichandran

The origin of comics, a medium used to express ideas via images and pictures, can be traced back to the cave period when humans communicated ideas and thoughts using paintings and pictures. In spite of the many famous comics such as Asterix, Batman, Superman, Spider-Man, and Tintin, and the Indian comics like Amar Chitra Katha, Akbar and Birbal, Tenali Raman, Nagaraj, Chacha Choudhuri, and so on, which were read and enjoyed by many, it was a taboo for students to even read them, let alone use them, in classes. It was only towards the end of the twentieth century that comics gained acceptance within the academic circle as an authentic material that could be used to teach students, as they exposed them to real-life situations, the social and political scenario of the time, and the language that people use in their daily conversations. This paper discusses how comics, as an ELT resource, can be a great asset. They can help instill reading skills in students as they are not heavy reading and are fun to read. Visuals along with dialogue can be used to improve learners’ vocabulary, creativity, and innovation.

Article Price : Rs.50

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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.

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