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The IUP Journal of Architecture

February'12
Focus

Rapid urbanization has forced the architects and planners to focus their attention towards the pressing contemporary issues our cities are facing. This has often been at the cost of losing the historical architectural heritage woven into our urban environments.

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Architectural Evolution of Gurdwaras: An Overview
A Study of Painted Mural Decoration in the Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti
Proportions and Architecture
An Investigation of the Relationship Between Features of Bus Shelters and Fear of Crime at Bus Stops
City Marketing and Urban Branding Through Urban Regeneration
and Image Making as a Case of Eskişehir-Turkey
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Architectural Evolution of Gurdwaras: An Overview

--Karamjit Singh Chahal, Sandeep Dua and Sulakhan Singh

Gurdwaras have a pivotal position in the religious, social and political life of the Sikhs. Gurdwaras have also played a vital role in shaping the course of events of the Sikh history and in the development of the Sikh religious tradition since 1469. The important Gurdwaras were built at sites associated with important incidents in the lives of the Gurus or at places which are important milestones in Sikh history; or they have been erected in memory of the martyrs who gave up their lives in defence of their faith during the long period of persecution to which the Sikhs were subjected. Historically, Gurdwara succeeded Dharmsal. Guru Arjan had compiled pothi or granth (later Guru Granth Sahib) of holy hymns in 1604, the Dharmsal where these pothis were placed was therefore considered as the Guruís abode, Gurdwara. Architecturally Gurdwaras have evolved from a simple single room structure to magnificent structures with elaborate detailing and decoration. This paper tries to trace the architectural evolution of Gurdwaras over a period of time.

A Study of Painted Mural Decoration in the Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti

-- Rohita Sharma and Ila Gupta

India is a country of diverse arts. The Mughal dynasty was famous for its glorious art. This paper studies the mural decoration in the Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, a famous monument of the Mughals. Besides the famous architecture, different art and motifs were used in their building, interior as well as exterior. The motifs are in geometrical, arabesques floral and fruit forms. Why only different floral motifs were used for wall decoration in different squares in the interior of the tomb, is a question to be answered. This study is an attempt to investigate the different aspects of floral mural decoration, as motifs in the tomb.

Proportions and Architecture

-- Rohitendra Singh, Aanchal Sharma and P S Chani

Proportions play a very significant role in architecture because they have different feelings associated with them and depend on how a human perceives objects with the surrounding spaces. Proportions affect working efficiency by creating positive or negative stimulus in the human brain. The beauty of nature is because every object is provided with an attractive proportion vis-ŗ-vis its surroundings. Beautiful architecture should also evoke such chemical changes in our brain which stimulates a feeling of pleasure or happiness. This paper deals with different types of proportions and the feelings generated by them in two and three dimensional spaces. On varying the size, mass or volume of various building elements, we generate bulky, young or light proportions. These proportions can promote the feeling of strength or weakness, stability or instability, openness or closeness, fear or security, depending upon its surroundings.

An Investigation of the Relationship Between Features of Bus Shelters and Fear of Crime at Bus Stops

-- G Subbaiyan and Srinivas Tadepalli

Place-based crime prevention theories emphasize the role of physical environment in the reduction of crime and fear of crime in different urban settings. Bus stops are expected to provide comfortable, safe and secure environments for the people to wait for the bus. The overall physical environment of bus stop settings can be classified into: surrounding built environment, street environment and bus stop (shelter) environment. Previous studies established that fear of crime is influenced by characteristics of bus shelter and surrounding environment. It is observed that most research in this context was undertaken in countries like the US and UK, whereas not much research work is reported in countries like India. This study investigated the influence of the type of shelter, and physical and nonphysical characteristics of bus shelter on fear of crime of people waiting at the bus stops in the Indian context. Bus shelter characteristics of selected bus stops in Tiruchirappalli were recorded and the people waiting at the bus stops were interviewed to assess their fear of crime. The results of the analyses using t-tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the nonphysical characteristics (i.e., bus shelter crowding and the presence of non-commuters) influenced fear of crime, whereas significant relationship between fear of crime and physical characteristics of bus shelters could not be established.

City Marketing and Urban Branding Through Urban Regeneration and Image Making as a Case of Eskişehir-Turkey

--Sevin Aksoylu

Depending on the increasing interurban competition, city marketing, urban branding and urban regeneration and image making have become key factors of urban governance, and many city managers have started to strengthen place promoting activities. Methods and technologies of urban marketing and city branding are accepted as the dominant aspect of competition in cities during the globalization and urbanization process, and can help and facilitate to differentiate them from other places. Marketing techniques are often used to help a cityís transformation into a center of tourism, culture and redevelopment. This paper examines the effects of the urban regeneration and image making activities on the city marketing and urban branding procedures as a case of Eskisehir.

 

 
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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bankís alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.

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