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The IUP Journal of Biotechnology

The continuous occurrence of adaptation of an organism to starvation and physical stress in natural ecosystems has forced the development of a very complex adaptational network in living organisms, specially prokaryotes. Insights into this network can be obtained by comparing the protein pattern in growing and starved or stressed cells by two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis. The first paper, “Stress Adaptation of Bacteria: Profile of a Network” by M K Chattopadhyay, Niharika M V N V, Kavitha K, Priyanka S,Bhavya A, Neha Ghosh, Arpita Raj, Dipanwita Sengupta and M V Jagannadham establishes molecular links between the mechanisms involved in adaptation of extremophilic bacteria to different stressors. The stress phenomenon in bacteria is discussed with all known mechanisms and biotechnological aspects are also highlighted.

Half of the world’s population depends partially on rice. Almost 20% of total rice yield is lost because of different bacterial and fungal diseases. Plant breeders are now utilizing marker-assisted selection for identification of specific genes. The authors, A Chandrasekhara Reddy, V Praveen Kumar, S Prasanthi and R Chakravarthy in their paper, “Evaluation of Variable Factors to Study Pathogenicity in Oryza sps Using Molecular Markers”, have provided important information on molecular markers in effective identification of pathological symptoms expressed in different parts of the plant body, which, in turn, provides control measures by causing inactivation of disease-inducing characteristics.

The genetic markers have also been utilized for understanding the taxonomic relationship between different species. Ashok Kumar and Padmini Srivastava in their paper, “Genetic Analysis of Ten Genotypes of Pinus roxburghii Using RAPD Molecular Markers”, have analyzed the genetic variation and relationship between ten genotypes of Pinus roxburghii by utilizing the tools of molecular taxonomy.

Carolinerose J and Rashmi M in their paper, “A Study of Serum Liver Enzymes and Lipid Level in Patients Infected with Salmonella typhi”, have compared the serum liver enzymes and lipid levels in people infected with S. typhi with normal people, and found that cholesterol level and triglycerides increased in typhoid patients.

The antisense technology is emerging as a powerful tool in combating many diseases in human beings. One of the bottlenecks in using this technology is nonspecific binding of oligonucleotides. The fifth paper, “Disulphide Bond Containing Deoxyoligonucleotide, RNA/DNA Duplex Formation”, by Ajay Kumar, describes the synthesis of disulphide bond containing oligonucleotide and its binding with ribonucleic acid sequences.

Another important technique, i.e., Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which includes statistical and mathematical tools for developing, improving and optimizing processes, has been explained in the paper, “Response Surface Method as an Efficient Tool for Modeling and Optimizing Performance” by the authors, Yisa Yakubu and Angela Chukwu.

- - S K Verma
Consulting Editor

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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.


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