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The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development

December' 08

Awareness of Supporting Agencies Among Women Entrepreneurs in Small Businesses

-- Anil Kumar

This paper examines awareness, utilization and the level of satisfaction of supporting agencies among women entrepreneurs in Northern India by taking a sample of 450 respondents from five states of Northern India, i.e., Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi. The data analysis shows that the level of awareness about services provided by the supporting agencies is very low. Implications of the findings have been discussed in the last part of the paper.

The Indian Steel Industry in a Global Perspective

-- Mritunjay Kumar Pandey

The iron and steel sector has the characteristic of being a leading industry in India's economy as well as in the process of industrialization. When the progress of the iron and steel industry and its relation to the country's development periods were observed, it was seen that forward and backward linkages play an important role in the development of the sub-sectors related to iron and steel. The importance of this sector originates from its providing input to all kinds of industries of the nation. The Indian steel industry registered a strong growth in steel consumption, driven by a strong growth in all steel consuming sectors, viz., automotive (13.6%), capital goods (18.3%), construction (10.7%), consumer non-durables (10.5%), and consumer durables (9.1%), etc. During the fiscal year 2006-2007, India's apparent steel consumption grew by 11.7% to 43.8 Million Tonnes (MT). The flat and long products' consumption grew by 11.5% and 12.3% respectively. Domestic steel consumption grew by 11.1% to 49.4 MT. Steel exports grew by 6.1% to 4.7 MT, while steel imports increased by 6.4% to 4.1 MT. The Indian steel industry was internationally cost-competitive till the end of the 1970s. However, since then and even today, it is suffering from high costs, especially labor cost. Thus, it was considered apt to have a comprehensive study in this area. The Indian steel industry has raw materials, but these need to be turned better and in accordance with standardized international demand. For doing this, the government should also assist them technologically, economically and lawfully, with the help of excise, customs and by taking new steps in this regard. From the above picture, it can be inferred that due to the availability of raw materials and low cost manpower, the Indian steel industry is in the growth stage, and this trend will continue for the next 20 years.

An Empirical Investigation of the Customer Orientation Construct for Entrepreneurial Strategy Making

-- Neetu Andotra and Pooja

Customer Orientation (CO) enhances entrepreneurial performance by creating value-added benefits either by increasing buyer benefits or by decreasing buyers' cost, which in turn, results in SSIs' (Small Scale Industries) superior performance (Conrad, 1999). This paper measures the nature and extent of CO in 103 SSIs, based on 200 customer responses for marketing-mix variables in the Kathua block of district Kathua, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The raw data, after reduction and purification through Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), and measured in terms of consistency, adequacy and predictability of the scale, was subjected to step-wise linear regression analysis for identifying the significant predictors of CO. The paper identifies `price reasonability', `SSIs' efficiently handling pricing issues' and `defective products taken back by retailers' as vital predictors of CO, which also generated high t-values and mean scores. Finally, the paper invites relentless efforts from SSIs towards quality improvement, proper packing and labeling strategies, minimizing pricing irregularities, intensifying promotional efforts, and exercising exhaustive efforts on pollution control.

Technology and Business Incubation in India: Challenges and Opportunities

-- Gayathri R

In order to encourage innovation, I propose to exempt from service tax all services provided by technology business incubators. Similarly, their incubatees whose annual business turnover does not exceed Rs. 50 lakhs will be exempt from service tax for the first three years.

- P Chidambaram, Finance Minister of India



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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.


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