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The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development


Training Propensity of Startups in Switzerland: A Study Based on Data for the Startup Cohort 1996-97

-- Spyros Arvanitis and Tobias Stucki

New firms are important drivers of economic growth. Apprenticeship training is, primarily in German-speaking countries, a widespread practice of skill formation. In this study, we combine these two facts and analyze the determinants of the training propensity of startups in Switzerland. This study is based on data for Swiss firms founded in 1996-97 that were collected in the years 2000, 2003 and 2006 respectively by means of a postal survey among those firms, which still existed at that time. The use of this dataset allows us to analyze how the determinants of training propensity change with increasing firm age.

Venture Capital Exit: In Pursuit of Optimal Strategy

-- Raghupathy M B and Thillai Rajan A

The study of venture capital exit has started gaining momentum since the last decade. Though valuation and pricing still remain the important areas in decisions relating to exit, other factors like the selection of appropriate timing, optimal exit route, etc. too are being studied extensively. This report summarizes the studies relating to the exit route and exit timing of venture capitalists and provides an optimal exit strategy. Though this report does not explicitly consider the factors influencing the exit design involving exit route and exit timing, these factors have been mentioned while explaining the other major objectives. Of the studies related to decisions regarding the optimal exit route, identification and grouping of five basic routes have been reviewed and summarized. Additionally, certain variants relating to the exit routes, like the partial exits, foreign IPOs, use of convertible securities, etc., have also been covered usefully. Finally, a review of the studies relating to the exit timing decisions has been made. Studies related to this commonly acknowledge the fact that IPO can be used for early exit and trade sales, buybacks, secondary sales and write-off, in the descending order. Based on the studies related to exit type and timing, appropriate exit strategies have been evolved with different combinations of type and timing. This is expected to give some beneficial guidelines to the executives of venture capital firms as well as to entrepreneurs.

Skdrdp's Successful Experiment with Group Entrepreneurship

-- Devaraj K and Vidyavathi K

Sri Kshetra Dharmasthala Rural Development Project (SKDRDP), launched in the year 1982 by Dr. D Veerendra Heggade, Dharmadhikari of Dharmasthala, a small temple town in South India, aims at the upliftment of rural poor. SKDRDP is active at present in the State of Karnataka in South India, where it is engaged in an intensive fight against poverty, ignorance, illiteracy, alcohol abuse, gender discrimination, division of villages on the lines of caste, creed and money power. SKDRDP has promoted various income-generation activities in production and service sector. Self-help groups are motivated, trained and assisted in setting up group ventures to help the poor rural women earn their own income and escape poverty permanently through self-employment or entrepreneurship. The SIRI Gramodyoga Yojane of SKDRDP is the focus of this research paper due to its central role in group entrepreneurship promotion among poor rural women. It is under this program, many women earn their livelihood from group ventures. Many women support themselves and their families through the income they earn from their entrepreneurial activities. In this paper, the authors have made an attempt to understand the key support structure and identify the success factors for creating, developing and sustaining group enterprises.

-- G Jeyanthi

Self-employment is widely viewed as an important engine of economic and employment growth. This study attempts to examine the entrepreneurial performance of units in terms of their size of investment, number of workers, level of production, etc. Results show that entrepreneurial performance variables are positively and significantly correlated in rural and urban units. An attempt has been made in this paper to highlight the problems faced by entrepreneurs and finding a way out of the problems through suitable government policies like liberalized credit policies, exemption in tax rates, setting up of an association, etc. The study emphasizes that there is a need to enhance awareness among entrepreneurs regarding utilization of services provided by supporting agencies.



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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.


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