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The IUP Journal of Science & Technology

March '05
Focus Areas
  • Electronics & Communication Engineering
  • Electrical & Electronics Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science & Engineering
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Application of Wavelet Transform in Controls: A Review
Handling the Problems Concerning Quality Management in Small and Medium Enterprises with Special Reference to Asia-Pacific Countries
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Application of Wavelet Transform in Controls: A Review

-- Hare Krishna Mohanta and R K Gupta

Wavelet analysis is an emerging field of mathematics that has provided new tools and algorithms suited for the type of problems encountered in process monitoring and control. In this paper, a review is presented for the applications of wavelet transform in advanced control systems, particularly in Model Predictive Control, Intelligent Control, Robust Control, Adaptive Control, Nonlinear Control, Process Modeling and Control, Process Identification and Control, Process Monitoring, Diagnosis and Control, Statistical Process Control and Optimal Control. The underlying principles in each of these control strategies have also been briefly discussed.

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Interface Mediated Oscillators: A Review
-- R C Srivastava and S K Saha

Two examples of interface mediated oscillators are discussed in the light of their nonlinear dynamic characteristics and biological implications. The importance of these systems is enhanced manifold because many convenient systems are not available which may be investigated experimentally in the far from equilibrium region.

Micro-hollow Cathode Plasma and Applications: From Excimer Source to Flat Tv Screens
-- Vijay Nehra, C L Mittal and H K Dwivedi

Micro-hollow cathode discharge (MHCD) devices are emerging as a versatile source of optical radiation (from vacuum ultraviolet to visible range) having unique properties, particularly with respect to operating pressure and power loading of the plasma. The devices are amenable to mass production and have promising applications to pollution control, display systems and chemical synthesis. The present paper provides an overview of gas discharge plasma using MHCD and its applications in a broad perspective. It is a tool for plasma spectroscopy specialists, who are familiar with analytical plasma, but may not be so well aware of other applications of MHCD Plasma. In the first part, micro-hollow cathode discharge and its principle will be discussed. In the second part, the most important applications will be outlined.

Synthesis and Fault Observability of CMOS Op-Amp
-- S C Bose

The growing need for integration of mixed analog-digital system requires the automation of analog design process and its testability. In this paper, we have attempted to develop an integrated CAD tool for the synthesis and testing of CMOS operational amplifier (op-amp). The point CAD tool converts the user specification of Miller compensated op-amp into a sized transistor topology. The user input includes gain-bandwidth product (unity gain frequency), input Common Mode Range (CMR), Slew Rate (Sr) and Load Capacitance (CL). Also, we have proposed a novel algorithm to detect fault(s) in an op-amp. We have used sensitivity analysis to detect fault. It has been shown that there are a range of frequencies over which the fault in different transistors exhibits itself at the output.

Unified Harmonic Compensator for Line Voltage and Current Distortion
-- Alka Mahajan, Parmod Kumar and Bhim Singh

A different topology has been described for a series-shunt active power filter also known as Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC). The UPQC configuration utilizes the advantages of both shunt and series filter types and can address most of the power quality problems, however, the high cost and complex control limit its practical use. The authors have proposed a cost-effective UPQC topology with simplified control. It consists of two half bridge bi-directional converters connected to a common DC link. The series and shunt components of the UPQC use two switches, each connected to a split DC bus. Since the number of switches is reduced, the cost is much reduced compared to the full bridge topology. The UPQC suggested in this paper emphasizes on harmonic voltage and harmonic current elimination. The series Active Power Filter (APF) keeps the voltage at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) constant with a clean waveform, free of distortion and the shunt active filter is aimed at harmonic current elimination and regulation of DC link voltage. A simplified reference voltage generation scheme for the series APF is also suggested that uses a PLL EPROM-based device to generate the reference signal and does not require calculation of active voltage component. This significantly reduces the time delay in compensator response and eliminates the need for complex hardware/software to extract the active voltage component and generate the reference signal. The control scheme is verified by simulation.

Varying Isospin Chemical Potential and the Phase Structure
-- S K Singh and Suresh Ramaswamy

The phase structure of Hadrons and Quark Gluon Plasma is investigated at finite temperature and varying non-zero isospin chemical potential within the framework of QCD-motivated phenomenological Bag Mode. This model is extensively used to describe the equation of state of deconfined quark matter. The plasma phase is considered to consist of non-strange quarks, their anti-quarks and gluons and the hadron phase of system.

Optimization of Process Parameters for Continuous Removal and Recovery of Cu2+ by Immobilized Spirulina Platensis
-- Raveender V, Ramachandran S and Verma S K

The biosorption of Cu2+ by lyophilized free cells and Poly Acrylamide Gel (PAG) immobilized S. platensis biomass was studied under batch and fixed bed column conditions. The process parameters like pH of the ambient medium, concentration of biomass, composition of ambient medium and flow rate were optimized. A 28% of biomass loaded PAG (w/w) squares were found to be stable as well as exhibited maximum Cu2+ sorption. In batch studies, the lyophilized free cells showed a maximum metal loading of ca. 250 mg g_1 at pH 6.0, which was almost similar under the immobilized condition. The experimental sorption data conformed to Freundlich isotherm model indicating a single layered Cu2+ deposition by the biomass. A 10 mmol dm_3 of Ca (NO3)2 was found to be the most suitable amongst the various eluants studied for the Cu2+ recovery from the metal loaded biomass. A glass column filled with 2 g of PAG immobilized S. platensis biomass was used for studying the continuous metal sorption and recovery in multiple cycles. The influent containing 0.1 mg dm_3 of Cu2+ with the flow rate of 6 cm3min_1 exhibited a breakthrough at ca. 37 dm3. A 345 cm3 of 10 mmol dm_3 of Ca (NO3 )2 at the same flow rate was found to completely elute the adsorbed metal. Ten such cycles of metal loading and its recovery were performed to examine efficiency of the process in terms of volume reduction. The process functioned optimally for at least seven cycles with ca. 143-fold volume reduction and was able to treat ca. 270 dm3 of industrial effluent with full efficiency.

Seismic Loss Scenario Generation
-- Satyendra P Gupta and K M Sindhu

Seismic disasters have been regularly affecting various parts of the world. Life losses and damage to property are normal features and in many cases the economy of the country is affected, thus disturbing the development plan. Disaster management is associated with various facets of handling of disasters so as to minimize the losses and suffering to masses. Government officials face a dilemma in the pre-disaster planning phase and provision to the affected community in the event of a disaster. Although it is very difficult to predict an earthquake precisely and further its disastrous effects, if some idea can be given on the likely scenario which will develop, following a seismic action, then some pre- and post- disaster planning can be done to tackle the situation. This study aims to build a scenario which could develop following an earthquake event. An attempt to understand the situation, Delhi has been taken as a case study. In the absence of needed data, the study has limitations and understanding of the methodology is more important here. This paper will describe in brief the assumptions made, the principles followed and results arrived at with some conclusions.

Handling the Problems Concerning Quality Management in Small and Medium Enterprises with Special Reference to Asia-Pacific Countries
-- Anil Jain

The Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the Asia-Pacific region have been increasingly facing the heat of globalization following the stipulations of the World Trade Organization (WTO). According to the WTO mandate, the custom duties, import tariffs and other taxes will be reduced to zero level by the year 2005. The SMEs will face a very stiff competition from European and American manufacturers for the marketing of their products within and outside their country. This paper looks at the issues of Quality Management in the areas of production, quality assurance, technology upgradation, standardization and human resource development. The real life experiences have been drawn from the shop floor in SMEs and efficient cost-effective solutions have been recommended to improve the quality of production, quality control, standardization and human resource development. A coordinated approach has been discussed in the paper which makes optimum utilization of United Nations funded institutions like the Asia-Pacific Center for the Transfer of Technology, the Instruments Design Development and Facilities Center (UNIDO/UNDP Assisted Center) and the Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Chandigarha Government of India Research Laboratory. Further, the paper suggests suitable measures which can enable SMEs to become globally competitive and establish their markets even in developed countries of the Europe and United States.

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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.


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