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Welcome to The IUP Journal of Genetics & Evolution


Previous Issues

While scientists still have a lot to learn about the workings of genetic code, science has built-up a large volume of knowledge about how the genetic material of living organisms works. While there are a lot of details still to be learned, we have a pretty good understanding of what DNA does in general and, equally important to evolution, how DNA changes. It is to acknowledge the growing importance of this field that IUP has come up with a quarterly journal, The IUP Journal of Genetics and Evolution to transmit the latest knowledge in genetics and evolution among the scientific community.


  • Animal and Plant Genetics
  • Human Genetics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cytogenetics
  • Classical Genetics
  • Molecular Genetics
  • Microbial Genetics
  • Quantitative Genetics
  • Evolutionary Morphology
  • Micro-Evolution by Natural Selection
  • Regulatory Evolution
  • Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Trees
  • Detecting Natural Selection from Gene Genealogies
  • Gene Families, Gene Duplications in Evolution
  • Evolution in Microorganisms
  • Molecular Evolution
In Vitro and In Vivo Effect of Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid
on Karnal Bunt (Neovossia indica) Resistance in Wheat
Efficacy of Insecticides on Pink Bollworm Infesting Bt Cotton
Dual Grading in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata [Thunb.] Ohwi and H Ohashi)
Study of Growth Pattern of Cattle Under Different Climatic Conditions
Immunocontraception – A Possibility from Sperm Antigens
and Their Genetic Basis: A Review
Junk DNA: An Evolutionary Trash or Nature’s Best Bequest?
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(February 2012)

In Vitro and In Vivo Effect of Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid on Karnal Bunt (Neovossia indica) Resistance in Wheat

--Veena Chawla, Subhash Kashayp, Neelam R Yadav,
Sandeep Kumar and R K Behl

Methyl jasmonate (MJ) (10-7, 10-6 and 10-5 M) and Salicylic Acid (SA) (1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM) were injected into wheat ear heads of a Karnal Bunt (KB) susceptible (HD 2329) and a resistant (WH 283) genotype at boot leaf stage, 24 h before (pretreatment) and 24 h after (posttreatment) inoculations with Karnal bunt pathogen. Karnal bunt incidence was quite high (28.35%) in susceptible genotype HD 2329 under conditions of artificial infection. Pre/ posttreatment of ear heads with methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid reduced the disease development in this genotype. To study the effect of pre/posttreatments of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid in vitro conditions, 15, 18 and 21-day-old embryos of both the genotypes were co-cultured with N. indica in petri plates. Application of methyl jasmonate was not only effective in early induction of Inhibition Zone (IZ) (i.e., in 15-day-old embryos) but significantly increased the percentage of inhibition zone forming embryos and also the diameter of inhibition zone in co-culturing. Both pre and posttreatments of inoculated ear heads of WH 283 genotype with salicylic acid could induce inhibition zone formation in co-culturing of pathogen and embryos at 18 Days After Pollination (DAP). Five mM solution of salicylic acid was the most effective for inducing higher frequency of inhibition zone formation, but 10 mM solution of salicylic acid was the most effective for bigger size of inhibition zone in coculturing at 21 days after pollination. Thus, both methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid were able to induce resistance both in vivo and in vitro conditions in the present experiment. However, to see the feasibility of using these chemicals at larger scale, spraying on developing ear-heads is yet to be observed.

Efficacy of Insecticides on Pink Bollworm Infesting Bt Cotton

--Santhosh Kumar K, Shivanna B K, Manjunatha M, Harish Babu S,
Raghunath B V, Soumya B R and Shilpa M E

In general, the insecticide treated plots performed significantly better than control for all the parameters against pink bollworm. Pink bollworm larval population on bolls was significantly less on all the treated plots than control. Three days after treatment, minimum number of larvae was recorded in novaluron, thiodicarb and spinosad as against the higher number of larvae registered in NSKE. Significantly, the highest number of larvae per 20 bolls was observed in control. However, the same trend was followed even at seven days after treatment also. Pink bollworm damage on green bolls was significantly less on all the treated plots than control. Three days after treatment, lowest green boll damage was recorded in thiodicarb, spinosad and lambda cyhalothrin, whereas the highest green boll damage was registered in control and was significantly different from NSKE. Seven days after treatment, the same trend was followed. Significantly, higher numberof Good Opened Bolls (GOBs) were recorded inspinosad, novaluron, indoxacarb, thiodicarb andlambda cyhalothrin than control, whereas minimum GOBs per plant were recorded in NSKE. Among the treatments, minimum Bad Opened Bolls (BOBs) per plant were recorded in spinosad, novaluron and thiodicarb, as against the higher number of BOBs per plant recorded in NSKE. Locule damage due to pink bollworm was significantly less in treated plots, viz., spinosad, thiodicarb and indoxacarb than control. Maximum locule damage was registered in NSKE, but significantly different over control. Significantly higher yield of seed cotton was recorded in spinosad (1935.20 kg/ha) and indoxacarb (1909.83 kg/ha), followed by thiodicarb (1890.10 kg/ha), novaluron (1866.73 kg/ ha) and lambda cyhalothrin (1802.17 kg/ha) than control (968.60 kg/ha), whereas NSKE recorded lower seed cotton yield (1507.27 kg/ha).

Dual Grading in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata [Thunb.] Ohwi and H Ohashi)

-- Srimathi P and Kumaran K

Grading is an important post-harvest operation where the seeds are homogenized based on size, weight and color to upgrade the quality of the seeds. Rice bean is one of the underutilized crops with hidden multipurpose utility. Hence, studies were carried out to upgrade the quality of seeds through sequential dual grading using size and color of the seeds. The seeds were size-graded using BSS 5  5, 6  6 and 7  7 wire mesh sieves and each of the size grades was further graded based on color as yellowish green, light brown and brown and were evaluated for the seed and seedling quality characters. The results revealed that the seeds size-graded using BSS 5  5 recorded the maximum seed quality characters in terms of germination and vigor, but it was on a par with BSS 6  6 which recorded the maximum recovery. Further, grading based on the color revealed that yellowish green seeds of both BSS 5  5 and 6  6 sieve recorded the highest germination of 90%, though the recovery was only 10 and 8%. Hence in rice bean, this type of dual grading could be adopted for nuclear and breeder seed production where seeds are to be with higher initial quality. But for commercial seed production both yellowish green and light brown seeds retained in grade BSS 6  6 (includes BSS 5  5 retained sieve) could be selected as the recovery of seed would be more than 80% combined with seed quality characters which were higher with these dual grading.

Study of Growth Pattern of Cattle Under Different Climatic Conditions

--Surendra Singh, A K Paul, K N Singh and Ashok Kumar

Different sigmoidal nonlinear growth models were fitted in the growth data of triple cross (Friesian×Sahiwal×Hariana) breed and double cross (Friesian×Sahiwal) breed at Agra and Dehradun farms which have different climatic conditions. On the basis of minimum RMSE, the Gompertz model was found to be the best fit. The estimates of growth rates and maturity weights of Friesian×Sahiwal×Hariana breed were considered better under homoscedastic and heteroscedastic error conditions at the Agra farm. Similarly, the growth rates and maturity weights of Friesian×Sahiwal breed were better at the Agra farm, as compared to the Dehradun farm. Therefore, it may be concluded that the climate of Agra (plain area) was more suitable for both the breeds for attaining the maturity weight, as compared to Dehradun (hilly area).

Immunocontraception – A Possibility from Sperm Antigens and Their Genetic Basis: A Review

-- V Venugopal Rao

There is an ongoing research in the identification of sperm antigens related to fertilization because the Antisperm Antibodies (ASA) may be a reason of infertility in some individuals which may affect the pre- as well as post-fertilization stages of the reproductive process. This phenomenon is being exploited to develop a vaccine that is immunocontraceptive for effective prevention of fertilization leading to unwanted pregnancy, which offers an attractive approach to the growing global problem of overpopulation. Genetic mechanisms in the determination of antigens, thereby eliciting immune response leading to prevention of fertilization and development, are understood thoroughly, helping in the construction of cDNA library and production of recombinant vaccines.

Junk DNA: An Evolutionary Trash or Nature’s Best Bequest?

-- Sumitra Pithawala, Mistry Dhruti and Meonis Pithawala

The term junk DNA has been racking the brain of scientists, novelists, ecologists, evolutionists and lay readers since it was coined. Till date, on the basis of all information gathered about its probable, virtual and undiscovered functions, a concurrent explanation about everything and nothing is gained. The present review is a confab of information about the so-called ‘JUNK DNA’ which has been considered by many for years as a sloppy evolutionary process, a redundant and ridiculous DNA, a molecular vituperative trash, and a selfish DNA on prima facie evidence, or recently a treasure trove of information molecules and super functionally regulatory entity.




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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.