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The IUP Journal of Physics

October '09

In the manufacture of rubber products, the blending of rubber produces new materials with a wide range of applications because they have the potential to combine the striking properties of both the constituents in the blend. In the first article, "Thermal Characterization and Surface Morphology of Natural Rubber (NR)/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR)

Thermal Characterization and Surface Morphology of Natural Rubber (NR)/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Blend
Loop Quantum Gravity in Ashtekar and Lagrange-Finsler Variables and Fedosov Quantization of General Relativity
Scale Invariant Theory of Gravitation in Non-Diagonal Bianchi Type II Space-Time
Time is Derived from Motion
Binding Energy of Nucleus Using Few-Body Interactions
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Thermal Characterization and Surface Morphology of Natural Rubber (NR)/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Blend

-- A Kala

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the thermal properties such as stability, degradation and glass transition temperature of Natural Rubber (NR) blended with Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) at 80:20 concentrations. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) has been successfully exploited to study the thermal properties of the blend in the temperature range of room temperature to 600 °C. The temperature increased in the steps of 20 °C/min, whereas the heating rate is varied dynamically when the weight change occurs. In addition, the studies on the power loss per minute were also carried out using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) under Argon (Ar) atmosphere with the Ar flow being 80.0 mL/min. The heating rate is 10 °C/min. The DSC studies were carried out in the temperature range of – 125 °C to +200 °C. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has been used to study the surface morphology of NR/NBR blend.

Loop Quantum Gravity in Ashtekar and Lagrange-Finsler Variables and Fedosov Quantization of General Relativity

Sergiu I Vacaru

We propose a unified approach to loop quantum gravity and Fedosov quantization of gravity following the geometry of double space-time fibrations and their quantum deformations. There are considered pseudo-Rlemannian manifolds enabled with (1) a nonholonomic 2 + 2 distribution defining a Nonlinear connection (N-connection) structure and (2) Arnowitt-Deser-Misner 3 + 1 decomposition. The Ashtekar-Barbero variables are generalized and adapted to the N-connection structure which allows us to write the general relativity theory equivalently in terms of Lagrange-Finsler variables and related canonical almost symplectic forms and connections. The Fedosov results are redefined for gravitational gauge like connections and there are analyzed conditions when the star product for deformation quantization is computed in terms of geometric objects in loop quantum gravity. We speculate on equivalence of quantum gravity theories with 3 + 1 and 2 + 2 splitting and quantum analogs of the Einstein equations.

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Scale Invariant Theory of Gravitation in Non-Diagonal Bianchi Type II Space-Time

-- Bivudutta Mishra

In this paper, the problem of non-diagonal Bianchi type II space-time is investigated in Wesson's scale invariant theory of gravitation with the matter field in the form of perfect fluid. The gauge function b depends on time coordinate only (Dirac gauge). It is found that the perfect fluid does not survive and Bianchi type II space-time turns out to be flat in this theory.

Time is Derived from Motion

-- Amrit S Sorli

Today in physics, there are two fundamental approaches to time. The first and the most common approach says that we use clocks to measure the time component of space-time, space and time being cofounded as the basis of physical reality. However, this approach has no experimental support. There is no evidence whatsoever that clocks measure one aspect of space-time, and in reality we cannot observe space-time at all. The second approach says time is cofounded with motion through space. This approach is supported by experiment and observation. We employ clocks to accumulate local internal motion, and then use the result to calibrate duration. This is then employed in the measurement of external motion or material change, and the comparative rate of such change. Our evidence tells us that this rate of change varies with gravity, being commonly known as gravitational time dilation. However, we can only measure space and motion, not time, and thus we must assert that the true basis of fundamental reality is space and motion rather than space-time. This means that space itself is in some respect timeless. Motion runs in timeless space.

Binding Energy of Nucleus Using Few-Body Interactions

M R Pahlavani , R Morad J and F Mojrian

A simple approach based on semiempirical mass formula and the Kelson-Garvey model by considering one, two and three body interactions has been developed to construct an analytical formula for binding energy. Binding energies for some nuclei are calculated via this method and compared with the available data. Also, an equation that expressed the relation between binding energies of the neighboring nuclei was obtained.



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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.


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