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The IUP Journal of Physics

In the manufacture of rubber products, the blending of rubber produces new materials with a wide range of applications because they have the potential to combine the striking properties of both the constituents in the blend. In the first article, "Thermal Characterization and Surface Morphology of Natural Rubber (NR)/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Blend", A Kala evaluated the thermal properties such as stability, degradation and glass transition temperature of Natural Rubber (NR) blended with Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to study the surface morphology of NR/NBR blend. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) revealed that the newly blended rubber material is useful for a variety of high temperature applications.

In recent years, three most popular approaches to quantization of gravity and unified and nonlinear theories in physics were developed: the String/M Theory (SMT), Geometric Quantization and Deformation Quantization (DQ) and Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). The aim of the article, "Loop Quantum Gravity in Ashtekar and Lagrange-Finsler Variables and Fedosov Quantization of General Relativity", by Sergiu I Vacaru was to give a self-contained and comparative analysis of the two existing general approaches to quantization of General Relativity (GR), the LQG and DQ, and to construct a `bridge' between these two quantum gravity theories. The author proved that the classical Einstein theory can be reformulated equivalently as an almost Kähler geometry if the (pseudo) Riemannian space-time is enabled with a formal (2+2)-dimensional nonholonomic distribution.

In the article, "Scale Invariant Theory of Gravitation in Non-Diagonal Bianchi Type II Space-Time", Bivudutta Mishra investigated the Bianchi type II cosmological model in Wesson's scale invariant theory of gravitation, when the source of the matter field is a perfect fluid. It was found that the perfect fluid does not survive and Bianchi type II space-time turns out to be flat in this theory.

General relativity and quantum theory have profoundly changed our view of the world. Both theories have been verified to extraordinary accuracy in the last several decades. LQG takes this novel view of the world seriously by incorporating the notions of space and time from GR directly into quantum field theory. The resultant theory is radically different from the conventional quantum field theory. It provides a precise mathematical picture of the quantum space and time. In the article, "Time is Derived from Motion", Amrit S Sorli, expressed that there is no experimental evidence whatsoever to support the view that space-time exists as the basis of fundamental physical reality. Clocks are macroscopic measuring devices which accumulate local internal motion, and we can record a sequencing of that motion and the changes that occur in space. But we can find no evidence to support the existence of space-time as a fundamental entity. Accordingly, the author concluded that we live in a timeless and temporal universe of space and motion where the past and future exist only in the human mind.

The mass and binding energy of atomic nuclei are keys to the understanding of many physical processes. Due to this, it is important to construct a reliable theoretical model for the values of the nuclear mass and binding energy of nucleus as a function of mass A and atomic number Z. In their article, "Binding Energy of Nucleus Using Few-Body Interactions", M R Pahlavani, R Morad J and F Mojrian constructed an approach that is able to calculate the binding energy of nuclei. This method is not only used for the known stable nuclei mass, but also for the nuclei far from stability. Binding energies of some nuclei have been calculated and compared with the related experimental data and good accuracy has been obtained.

-- BVVSN Prabhakara Rao
Consulting Editor

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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.


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