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The IUP Journal of Chemistry

Over the past two decades, active interest has been generated and it continues to grow in the chemistry of iron compounds, particularly in expanding areas of synthesis of heterobinuclear complexes. Moreover it is substantiated by the large-scale industrial and biochemical applications. In addition to synthesis studies, extensive investigations were also carried out to establish structural-reactive site correlation. Fascinatingly, crystallographic data of around 900 heterometallic dimers have shown approximately 7.8% of them exist as isomers and often stereoselectivity of such isomers is linked to stereospecificity in biological reactions. In the first paper, “Isomers in the Chemistry of Heterometallic Iron Clusters: Part I Heterometallic Dimers”, the authors Milan Melník and Mária Kohútová have analyzed crystallographic and structural data of many organometallic distortion isomers. Detailed studies indicate that the factors like solution concentration, nature of solvent, pH, temperature, pressure and mole ratio greatly affect the composition and structure of heterobinuclear complexes of iron.

In refineries, petroleum derivatives are continuously converted into lighter, more valuable products via high temperature catalytic cracking in the Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) unit. Representative FCC products are propylene, butylenes, gasoline, naptha, coke, and dry gas. Operating conditions of FCCs vary depending upon the feed, desired products and mechanical limitations. FCC catalyst is a very porous material that has matrix-like zeolites. Nowadays, two basic types of FCC units are commonly used in refineries—‘side-by-side’ type and the orthoflow or ‘stacked’ type. The stacked type FCC unit is designed to operate with only a single stage of regeneration and has no provision for external heat removal from the catalyst. The second paper, “Stacked Configuration of Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit: A Review”, by Diwakar Z Shende and Kailas L Wasewar, explains the advantages of stacked configuration over side-by-side configuration. The inherent superiorities like less power consumption and less requirement of space can make it a preferred choice.

Soy products are an excellent source of dietary proteins amongst legumes. Soy is rich in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, cobalt and potassium; vitamins like thiamin (B1) and riboflavin (B2); and minor components such as protease inhibitors, phenolic compounds and lectin thus making soy products healthy and nutritious. Tofu or ‘bean curd’ resembles a soft white cheese and is prepared directly from soybeans using salt, acid or proteolytic enzymes by the coagulation of soy protein gel with water, soy lipids and other constituents trapped in its gel. The third paper, “Biochemical Mechanism of Soy Protein Gelation and Factors Influencing Tofu Characteristics”, by M K Tripathi, Punit Chandra and L K Sinha, describes several quality controlling parameters such as soybean variety, nature of coagulant, concentration of coagulant, process of mixing, coagulation time and temperature for good quality and yield of tofu.

Recent advances in the tailor-made designer modified oligodeoxynucleotides have a number of applications. Many modified oligodeoxynucleotides are now amply used as probes in biochemistry and molecular biology labs, as therapeutic agents targeted to human disease, in molecular diagnostic strategies for identifying disease-related genes and pathogens. Thermal melting (Tm) studies have established that modifications may significantly stabilize the DNA/DNA duplexes. Interestingly, the last paper,“C-5 Thiopropyne-Substituted Thymidine Containing Oligodeoxynucleotide: DNA/DNA Duplex Formation”, by Ajay Kumar, reports the DNA/DNA duplex formation hybridization studies of disulfide containing oligodeoxynucleotide with its complementary oligodeoxynucleotide and mismatch containing oligodeoxynucleotides. It is expected that such binding studies of the modified oligodeoxynucleotide can give better insight into altered base pairing selectivity and increasing duplex stability.

-- Sushama Viladkar
Consulting Editor

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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.


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