Oct'21


The IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior

ISSN: 0972-687X

A 'peer reviewed' journal indexed on Cabell's Directory,
and also distributed by EBSCO and Proquest Database

It is a quarterly journal focusing on Organization design, Job performance, Motivation and Job satisfaction; Work-life balance and Stress management; Group dynamics; HR policies and practices and management of HR; Turnover and Absenteeism; Leadership and its role in goal setting and innovation in the organization; Organizational culture and decision making, etc.

Privileged access to Online edition for Subscribers.

Focus Areas
  • Organization Design
  • Job Performance
  • Motivation and Satisfaction
  • Work-Life Balance
  • Good Dynamics
  • Leadership
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Article   Price (₹) Buy
The Relationship Between Glass Ceiling and Women's Performance in the Banking Sector: An Empirical Study
50
Talent Management and Its Impact on Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention: A Literature Review
50
Psychological Empowerment as a Predictor of Affective Commitment Among Employees of Indian Banks
50
The Impact of Trust and Integrity on Police Performance and Community Happiness: The Mediating Role of Procedural Justice
50
Determinants of Employee Engagement: A Study of Select Information Technology Firms
50
The Influence of Job Characteristics on Attrition in the IT Industry
50
Manager's Role in Employee Turnover Intentions: A Special Study During Covid-19
50
Boundary Dynamics of Work-Life Integration During Covid-19 Induced Work from Home
50
Authentic Leadership, Sustained Performance, Job Satisfaction, and Inclusive Culture: The Role of Psychological Empowerment
50
Examining the Influence of Self-Efficacy and Conscientiousness on the Freelancers' Self-Leadership: A Study in India
50
The Dark Side of Leadership: A Review of Literature on Abusive Supervision
50
Leadership and Communication During a Crisis - The Case of Tony Fernandes (AirAsia) and Ahmad Jauhari Yahya (Malaysia Airlines)
50
Perception of Management Students Towards E-Leadership
50
Graduating Students' Job Search Intensity: The Impact of Social Support Dimensions and Employment Commitment
50
Perceived Academic Stress and Quality of Campus Life in Business Schools
50
The Impact of E-Learning Framework on Student's Learning in Technical Education in India
50
Perception of Female Students Undergoing Professional Courses Towards Gender Stereotypes at the Workplace
50
The Success of Learning Management System in Higher Educational Institutions in India
50
Perceived Stress and Coping Mechanism of Generation Z Management Students: Empirical Evidence
50
Work-Life Conflict and Psychological Health Among Healthcare Sector Employees: A Comparative Study of Employees of Public and Private Hospitals
50
Occupational Stress as a Function of Organizational Commitment and Personality Type: A Study on Legal Professionals
50
What Factors Influence a Woman's Decision to Return to Work? A Review of Literature on Career Models
50
Application of Theory of Planned Behavior for Assessing Entrepreneurial Behavior of Workers in the Unorganized Sector
50
The Influence of Stream on the Entrepreneurial Intentions of Engineering Students
50
E-Commerce Industry - HR Strategies: A Perspective Analysis
50
Strategic Human Resource Management and Employee Relationship Management: An Approach for Realizing Sustainable Competitive Advantage
50
Open Leadership at Red Hat
50
IBM's Desperate Bid to Create Younger Organization - Big Blue's Woes with Age Discrimination
50
Can Thierry Delaporte Revive Wipro?
50
Crisis at Papa John's Pizza: Fall of John Schnatter
50
Ethical Dilemmas of Decision Making in a Crisis: Tragedy at Memorial Medical Center, New Orleans
50
Hindustan Unilever Limited: Providing the Right Work-Life Balance
50
IKEA's Talent Management and Corporate Culture
50
Launchpad: The Internship Program at Flipkart
50
Microsoft: Building a Collaborative Work Culture to Foster Innovation
50
Safety Culture at General Motors Post the Ignition Switch Recall Crisis
50
Competency-Based Human Resource Management
50
Building a High Performance Culture Based on the Book No Rules Rules: Netflix and the Culture of Reinvention
50
       
Contents : (Oct' 2021)

The Relationship Between Glass Ceiling and Women's Performance in the Banking Sector: An Empirical Study
Saloome Showkat

The existence of gender equality and equal opportunity is critical to the growth of the world's idealistic social structure. However, this fundamental impression is often compromised by the dominance of patriarchal beliefs and values, as reflected in the invisible barrier that restrains the growth and advancement of working women. The glass ceiling is an implied orientation followed by organizations that impede women from holding executive positions despite their qualifications, competence, and experience. Despite numerous social reforms and amendments to laws and regulations, initiatives to highlight women's underrepresentation in executive positions have been limited. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine the relationship between the glass ceiling and women's performance in the banking industry. The data was collected by stratified random sampling. A sample of 300 women working at the managerial level was selected. The study found evidence of glass ceiling in the banking sector and a moderate negative correlation between glass ceiling and work performance of women.


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Talent Management and Its Impact on Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention: A Literature Review
Suman Dahiya and Rupa Rath

To attain competitive advantage and achieve business growth, organizations have realized that a highly engaged, and motivated workforce is the key. Retention of talent is an important agenda of every organization in the competitive world of business. Organizations are required therefore to be more innovative and dynamic in their Talent Management (TM) approach. However, academic research in the field of TM does not provide any specific conclusions for a right TM explanation. In fact, research on TM has been assumed to be not offering right talent management solutions to organizations to accomplish its effective talent management practices. This review of literature includes a detailed study of different interpretations of talent management as a concept, it also studies different factors of talent management. The study defines different components of commitment and the concept of turnover intention of employees in organizations. A theoretical framework is proposed to study the causal relationship between different factors of talent management and organizational commitment and also the causal relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intention of employees in organizations. Further research in establishing and analyzing the relationships will support effective implementation of different talent management policies, practices and their influence in addressing retention challenges in organizations.


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Psychological Empowerment as a Predictor of Affective Commitment Among Employees of Indian Banks
Neha Gahlawat and Sandeep Kumar

The study is an attempt to examine the mechanism of enhancing affective commitment by understanding the effects of psychological empowerment on employees' commitment. The respondents included 208 employees from the Indian banking sector, and the regression results confirm a positive relationship between psychological empowerment and affective commitment. On the theoretical front, the study adds to the limited literature on psychological empowerment in the Indian context. On the practical side, the study helps organizations to understand the importance of psychological empowerment among employees to improve their affective commitment. Bank managers should focus on minimizing the elements present in the work environment that might create a feeling of helplessness in employees. They should create a working environment in the organization where employees are encouraged to take part in the decision-making process.


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The Impact of Trust and Integrity on Police Performance and Community Happiness: The Mediating Role of Procedural Justice
Mohammed Abdul Nayeem

This review explores the impact of trust and integrity on police performance and community happiness and the mediating role of procedural justice in the context of Telangana police. The relationship among the variables is established through a systematic literature review and accordingly, the research gaps are also identified. A conceptual framework is also presented to study the relationships. A mixed-method approach to validate the relationship in question through the collection of data is also suggested, hoping it would provide theoretical and practical implications and recommendations on making community policing more effective in generating community happiness.


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Determinants of Employee Engagement: A Study of Select Information Technology Firms
Vikas Gautam and Harsh Vardhan Kothari

The study investigates the role of organizational climate and self-efficacy as determinants of employee engagement amongst employees of select Information Technology firms. Primary data was collected from 105 employees working in different sectors in the National Capital Region, India. The Utrecht work engagement scale developed by Schaufeli et al. (2002), General self-efficacy (10 items scale) developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1995) and Organizational climate questionnaire developed by Litwin and Stringer (1968) have been used to measure the constructs. The data was analyzed using Structural equation modeling. The analysis revealed a significant positive impact of organizational climate and self-efficacy on employee engagement. Both determinants explained 46% of the variance in employee engagement construct.


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The Influence of Job Characteristics on Attrition in the IT Industry
M Showry and Ravi Dasari

The attrition of employees has emerged as one of the unyielding human resource challenges confronting the IT industry. Brutal cost-efficiency, intense competition, relentless innovation, and persisting rate of attrition of employees would threaten the organization's ability to accomplish strategic goals. Hence, organizations in the IT sector have made substantial efforts to reduce the rate of attrition by implementing diverse HRM practices. Despite the implementation of innovative human resource practices, the attrition among IT professionals remains unabated and threatening the competitive advantage of the organization. Hence, the managers have shifted their attention to examining the influence of the job characteristics on employee attrition. The current study examines whether or not an employee's subjective evaluation of job characteristics influences attrition by using Hackman and Oldham's job characteristics model. The findings of the study conclude that skill variety, task identity, task significance, and autonomy influence attrition.


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Manager's Role in Employee Turnover Intentions: A Special Study During Covid-19
Yamini Meduri and Poonam Jindal

The study aims to examine the relationship between manager's role and employee turnover intentions in the covid-19 pandemic situation. A questionnaire survey was designed by using three constructs - Manager Quality Performance Index (MQPI), Manager's Participation in Talent Planning (MPTP), and Employee Turnover Intention (ETI). 358 IT employees responded to the survey conducted during Covid-19 lockdown. Structured Equation Modeling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothetical association among the variables, which found that if managers are more involved in talent planning and their performance index is high, the turnover intentions in subordinates will be less. The study suggests implications on the practices and theories of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) and Social Exchange Theory (SET). The originality of this study is conceived by focusing on performance index of quantitative and qualitative behavioral information of line managers and their participation in talent planning, and by statistically proving their relationship with employee turnover intentions.


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Boundary Dynamics of Work-Life Integration During Covid-19 Induced Work from Home
Kalaa Chenji and Sode Raghavendra

Many organizations were forced to adopt Work From Home (WFH) practices during the lockdown due to Covid-19. As employees are experiencing WFH for the first time, the study aims to understand the positive and negative experiences of 25 respondents from the manufacturing sector, service sector and academia. Boundary dynamics of work-family conflict and the theory and constructs of work-life integration are reviewed to identify and understand the existing literature. The study examines the trends that contributed to the area, and studies the theoretical perspectives of boundary/border management, integration/segmentation and related constructs.


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Authentic Leadership, Sustained Performance, Job Satisfaction, and Inclusive Culture: The Role of Psychological Empowerment
Salini S Pillai and Sitamma Mikkilineni

With disruptions due to technology/transformations and changing market/client landscapes, organizations are constantly adapting to keep up with the external environment. This in turn is driving organizations to be nimble, agile, and flexible in their structures and people practices. The need for the study in the emerging field of Authentic Leadership points to the need for organizations to focus on authentic leadership to create impact, build culture and influence the teams towards achieving the organizational objectives. The paper examines the research on AL and its impact on key variables of sustained performance, job satisfaction and inclusive culture. The paper is unique compared to prior research due to the inclusion of the role of psychological empowerment beyond the structural empowerment discussed in prior research. The paper presents a detailed literature review, key definitions of the variables and multi-level perspectives of the variables. It also provides the prior research measures and tools used to establish the relationship of various variables with Authentic Leadership. The paper concludes with multiple hypotheses to be studied for establishing the impact of psychological empowerment on the AL components, if any.


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Examining the Influence of Self-Efficacy and Conscientiousness on the Freelancers' Self-Leadership: A Study in India
Keerti Shukla, Surajit Saha and Musarat Shaheen

Self-leadership strategies make employees agile in today's uncertain and ambiguous work environment. But there exists a debate whether self-leadership is an inborn or developable characteristic. Thus, the present study attempts to investigate whether an individual psychological resource (i.e., self-efficacy), which is malleable in nature, and individual personality trait (i.e., conscientiousness), which is relatively fixed over a period of time, can predict self-leadership. The influence of conscientiousness as a personality trait and self-efficacy as a personal resource on self-leadership were examined based on the data collected from 103 professionals working in different industries of India. Correlations and regression analysis was performed to investigate the impact. The findings indicated a significant effect of self-efficacy and conscientiousness on self-leadership. More interestingly, the data shows that self-efficacy is more critical for self-leadership compared to conscientiousness. The findings of the study suggest several avenues for the engendering of self-leaders at the workplace.


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The Dark Side of Leadership: A Review of Literature on Abusive Supervision
Ashok Kumar Goute, Avanthika Goute and N Akbar Jan

The role of managers and supervisors is becoming more important in the modern VUCA (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity) world and the emerging new normal of post-Covid. The different styles of leadership produce different outcomes for the organization. Similarly, one of the dark sides of leadership, i.e., abusive supervision, brings out outcomes that are of greater concern for organizations across the globe. The present literature review of abusive supervision is intended to highlight the aspects more relevant to organizational behavior domain. The study also elaborates the relationships of abusive supervision with other organizationally important variables, including relevant mediators and moderators. The various opportunities for future research like relationship of abusive supervision with organizational culture, injustice, and organizational citizenship behavior have been identified.


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Leadership and Communication During a Crisis - The Case of Tony Fernandes (AirAsia) and Ahmad Jauhari Yahya (Malaysia Airlines)
Indu Perepu and Sitamma Mikkilineni

The purpose of this paper is to examine the communication styles of two leaders in managing the crisis they faced. The study gives an insight into and a perspective on the qualities leaders need in times of crisis. It is significant as it investigates how crisis communication was handled by the leaders of AirAsia and Malaysia Airlines. The study then discusses the main reasons why the communication by Tony Fernandes of AirAsia went on to become a perfect example of how to communicate during a crisis, and why the communication efforts of Malaysia Airlines' Ahmad Jauhari Yahya did not meet the stakeholders' expectations.


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Perception of Management Students Towards E-Leadership
Syed Hassan Abdullah and Sitamma Mikkilineni

Information technology tools have proven to be the desired response for sustaining organizational performance. The paper examines the perceptions of students towards e-leadership. It is based on the observations obtained through a survey from 105 students. An important finding in this paper is that e-leaders will encourage the exchange of information in the organization. The swift decisions, continuous sense of urgency and speed have made e-leadership a vital part of the organization. However, this has certain limitations such as misunderstanding, lack of trust and empathy.


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Graduating Students' Job Search Intensity: The Impact of Social Support Dimensions and Employment Commitment
Chetna Priyadarshini

This paper intends to propose a conceptual framework on the personal and contextual antecedents of job search intensity among the final year job-seeking university students in India. It focuses on three dimensions of social support, viz., emotional, financial and informational, received by the graduating students during their job search process. The paper also proposes that the social support dimensions will have a differential impact on the job search behavior exhibited by the entry level job seekers. Further, it discusses the impact of employment commitment on job seekers' search intensity. Besides, the paper proposes a conceptual model that can be used to study the mediating role of job search self-efficacy and job search clarity on the relationship between social support dimensions and job search intensity, and employment commitment and job search intensity.


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Perceived Academic Stress and Quality of Campus Life in Business Schools
N Akbar Jan, Asha Binu Raj, A K Subramani and Ashok Kumar Goute

The main objective of this paper is to explore the impact of students' perceived academic stress on the quality of campus life of business schools in South India. A survey was conducted among the first and final-year MBA students from Chennai, Bengaluru, and Hyderabad business schools. Structured questionnaires designed through Google Forms were used to gather the primary data from a sample of 386 students. A cross-sectional study examined the significant academic stressors and how students perceive and manage these stressors. In addition, this paper also analyzes the impact of academic stress on the quality of campus life by examining the physical health, environmental health, mental health, and social relationships among students. Data was collected thrice in a semester, i.e., during the beginning of the semester, mid-semester, and end of the semester during examinations. The research outcome shows that all the academic stress factors identified in the study (stress perception, stressors, and stress management) significantly relate to the academic stress construct. Similarly, physical, environmental, and mental health and social relationship are positively associated with the quality of campus life. The results of the SEM also portray that the academic stress prevailing in the business schools results in negative perceptions towards the quality of campus life among the student community.


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The Impact of E-Learning Framework on Student's Learning in Technical Education in India
Asha Binu Raj, N Akbar Jan and A K Subramani

The focus of this paper is to examine the effect of the e-learning framework on students' learning in technical educational institutions in India. The paper considers Khan's e-learning framework to analyze the students' perception of the system used in their technical education. The student's learning was measured through three main dimensions of learning, which include knowledge, skills, and attitude, by analyzing the individual impact on the overall learning process. This study attempted to test the hypothesis through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique. The data was collected from a sample of 294 respondents. The sample was selected using snowball sampling technique. The results of descriptive analysis and SEM indicate that the e-learning system used in technical educational institutions has a significant positive impact on various dimensions of students' learning. The findings reveal that proper design and delivery of e-learning systems with appropriate pedagogies in technical educational institutions will enhance the quality of technical education and result in improved learning among students, making them employable.


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Perception of Female Students Undergoing Professional Courses Towards Gender Stereotypes at the Workplace
Nirupama Chakraborty and Namrata Chatterjee

Gender stereotyping is a psycho-social process that illustrates structured sets of beliefs about the personal attributes of men and women. An awareness of the contents of gender role stereotypes subconsciously begins in the preschool years and is rather well-developed by the time children enter first grade. Women continue to be plagued by gender stereotyping that we perceive as a thing of the past. The existence of actual differences between male and female managers has been challenged for some time in the research literature. While men are expected to “take charge,” women are mostly expected to “take care,” playing a more supportive and nurturing role both on their personal and professional fronts. But in order to overcome these disparities, organizations must first acknowledge that gender stereotypes still exist. Studies have reported that organizations that have a significant number of women in the management positions have a higher return on investment, and work teams that consist of an even number of men and women who are more productive than those made up of primarily just one gender. Hence, this study is an attempt to look at some of the key stereotypical perceptions associated with professional women. As more and more young women are entering the various industries today, it is of importance to understand their perceptions regarding the various stereotypes that working women might be subjected to since these might act as perceived barriers for female students undertaking professional courses.


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The Success of Learning Management System in Higher Educational Institutions in India
Saumya Kapoor Sharma, N Akbar Jan and A K Subramani

The study's key objective is to examine the success of the Learning Management System (LMS) used in various Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in Chennai city. This study used a descriptive research design, which describes the users' perspective towards the success of LMS used in various HEIs in Chennai city. Data was collected through a stratified sampling technique to measure the satisfaction level attained by institutions adopting LMS. The SEM model shows that all the LMS factors have a significant positive effect on the usage of LMS. The findings of the study will help policymakers of HEI focus more on content quality while developing LMS platforms.


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Perceived Stress and Coping Mechanism of Generation Z Management Students: Empirical Evidence
Sombala Ningthoujam, Teena Singh, Vikas Gautam and Maria Zafar

The present study investigates the relationship between perceived stress and coping mechanism of postgraduate management students. The qualitative research led to identification of six themes related to sources of stress among students, namely, academic/career, financial factors, environmental factors, interpersonal factors, moving to a new place for college, and miscellaneous sources. Further, the qualitative methodology identified stress coping measures such as problem-focused strategies, and emotion-focused strategies. The results of Correlation Analysis confirmed positive relationship between perceived stress and self-distractions (r = 0.118); denial (r = 0.170); substance abuse (r = 0.178); use of instrumental support (r = 0.129); behavioral disengagement (r = 0.158); venting (r = 0.233); self-blame (r = 0.290) and humor (r = 0.133). Moreover, the study found negative relationship between perceived stress and active coping mechanism (r = -0.211); perceived stress and positive reframing (r = -0.159); perceived stress and acceptance (r = -0.211). Also, the study found moderate stress level with 76.5% (n = 309) of the respondents, low stress level with 14.10% (n = 57) and perceived high stress level with 9.40% (n = 38). A MANOVA was conducted with gender as the independent variable on the group of outcome variables (perceived stress and coping mechanism).


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Work-Life Conflict and Psychological Health Among Healthcare Sector Employees: A Comparative Study of Employees of Public and Private Hospitals
Sombala Ningthoujam, Teena Singh, Vikas Gautam, Anupama D Raina and Maria Zafar

In the current situation of Covid-19, it is clear as to how health professional warriors are fighting against disease, distress, social discrimination and many atrocities while upholding their profession and compassion. Moreover, they are exposing themselves to the risk of infection and death to save the lives of patients from a life-threatening disease. The study examines the relationship between work-life conflict and psychological health of healthcare sector employees and the flexible workplace arrangement. Further, it examines if there is any difference between those employed in public hospitals and those in private hospitals. Comparison of means using t-test, means, frequency and correlation analysis is done in order to achieve the study objectives. The results confirm low levels of overall conflict as well as family-work and work-family conflicts. With regard to comparison between government and private hospitals, a significant difference is found between the two at burnout levels only and not in terms of conflict and health.


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Occupational Stress as a Function of Organizational Commitment and Personality Type: A Study on Legal Professionals
Preshita Neha Tudu and Piyushita Meha Tudu

Occupational stress is experienced in all professions, law included. There are studies to suggest that organizational commitment has a positive impact on occupational stress. Similarly, studies have been conducted to prove the link between personality type and occupational stress. However, there are very few studies linking all three variables. The present work aims to bridge this gap. The aim of the paper is to measure occupational stress experienced by lawyers. Studies on this subject in India are few and far between. Data from 102 respondents, representing 68% response rate, were analyzed. The study was carried out using standardized questionnaires, which include Philip L Rice occupational stress questionnaire, Myers-Briggs personality type questionnaire and Alan Meyer organizational commitment questionnaire. Correlation and stepwise regression statistical analysis was performed to arrive at the results. The results show that there is significant correlation between occupational stress and personality types of introversion, sensing, feeling and thinking. A significant inverse correlation has also been deduced between occupational stress and organizational commitment. Emotional commitment has been identified as the best predictor of occupational stress and feeling as the least predicting variable. The findings of the study can be used to devise strategies to combat occupational stress experienced by lawyers working in litigation as well as for corporates.


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What Factors Influence a Woman's Decision to Return to Work? A Review of Literature on Career Models
Rupali Nandamuri, Smita Kulkarni and Prerna Chhetri

The literature on women workforce that rejoin work after a career break, is limited to either determinants or consequences. However, there is a need to identify and understand career development models that focus on career breaks and women re-joining the workplace. This will give an understanding and insight into the factors that determine and influence women to return to work. Therefore, the paper reviews existing career development models in the available literature and proposes a comprehensive framework of factors that influence a woman's decision to re-join work post career break. The factors have been classified as internal and external factors. An understanding of the factors can help organizations as well as individuals contribute towards supporting women to rejoin work post career break.


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Application of Theory of Planned Behavior for Assessing Entrepreneurial Behavior of Workers in the Unorganized Sector
P Venkateswarlu and R R Reddy

Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was applied to study the entrepreneurial behavior of workers in the unorganized sector. Workers from the construction sector were considered for the study. The results indicate that all the three TPB variables, viz., attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control, have significant effect and are the strongest predictors of becoming entrepreneurs. It is evident that females have shown lesser attitude and perceived behavior control than males to become entrepreneurs. There is a need for the governments to recognize the unorganized construction sector and provide some basic education to strengthen their entrepreneurial skills and enhance their confidence to become better entrepreneurs.


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The Influence of Stream on the Entrepreneurial Intentions of Engineering Students
P Venkateswarlu

This paper was conceptualized with an objective to identify the entrepreneurial intentions among the students pursuing engineering degree and to assess the influence of the stream, such as Electronics and Communication Engineering, Computer Science Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Civil Engineering. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior was applied to assess the behavioral intentions of the students pursuing engineering degree. The results indicated that no influence of stream was found on the entrepreneurial intentions of the students. However, students pursuing mechanical engineering and civil engineering had shown higher degree of attitude towards entrepreneurship as their career.


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E-Commerce Industry - HR Strategies: A Perspective Analysis
Brigadier Bhuvanagiri Chandrasekhar and B S S Karthik

The purpose of the study is to explore the challenges faced by the stakeholders of e-commerce industry in India, and to understand the business as well as HR strategies adopted by them to cope with these challenges and stay at the top. To study the phenomenon and understand the challenges of e-commerce industry, the qualitative methodology was used. The approach followed by the authors was: on-site observation of e-commerce processing centers; conducting semi-structured interviews with subject matter experts and with the team leaders in charge of ‘planning' and ‘operations' of e-commerce business players; with the team leaders in charge of operations at the parcel and COD processing centers, Transportation Management Center at Hyderabad, and HR at the Delivery Points (involved in last mile delivery of the shipments) in a south Indian State. The interaction was at length with the functionaries in charge of the logistics partner of these e-commerce players based in Hyderabad. The findings explored the approaches adopted by the two e-commerce business players and by their service partners at the processing centers and at the last mile delivery points. The study also brought forth some interesting business strategies and strategic HR practices being adopted by the different stakeholders. Themes emerged out of these interviews and the on-site observations were captured and a set of propositions were made as findings in this study. Based on these findings, a set of propositions were made, which can become a base for all the stakeholders to work upon for planning and reaching higher efficiency levels. Further, such studies can be carried out in other states of the country and also in other countries of Asia in the future.


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Strategic Human Resource Management and Employee Relationship Management: An Approach for Realizing Sustainable Competitive Advantage
Swati Hans

The paper presents a conceptual framework establishing the link between strategic human resource management and employee outcomes (such as motivation, satisfaction, and happiness), and sustainable competitive advantage at the firm level. The paper also explains that HR practices, if integrated with other functions at work and strategically aligned with the overall business strategy, would lead to superior benefits for an organization. This framework could be used as a reference framework by future researchers for similar kind of research on SHRM.


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Open Leadership at Red Hat
A Kranthi Kumar and Jitesh Nair

The case study describes the open leadership approach followed by Red Hat, Inc., an American multinational software company providing open source software products. Red Hat's culture was rooted in the open source movement since it had hired employees mostly from open source communities in the initial years post its inception in 1993. Constructive criticism through open and heated debates was common and acting openly was the norm and what was expected. The top management realized that open leadership gave Red Hat a competitive advantage and efforts had to be made to retain this culture even as the company grew in size. The company management observed that in an open organization, employees evolved into leaders when they exhibited certain behaviors as a result of their beliefs. Red Hat identified the general principles (mindsets) and the resulting open leadership practices (behaviors) and took steps to interlock these mindsets with the leadership behaviors. In the initial phase of building an open leadership system, Red Hat did not find any suitable end-to-end leadership development systems that would help train its people to lead in a flat organizational structure and a culture that preferred meritocracy over hierarchy and seniority. The company decided that it would build some of those systems itself, and in other cases modify and adapt best practices used in standard organizations.


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IBM's Desperate Bid to Create Younger Organization - Big Blue's Woes with Age Discrimination
K B S Kumar and Indu Perepu

In 2018, US-based multinational information technology company International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) faced a series of lawsuits filed by former employees. These lawsuits accused IBM of discriminating against the employees who were over 40 years old, in order to make way for new talent and tech-savvy millennials in the workforce. The case explains the different ways that IBM used to target older employees and discriminated against them. With many employees approaching the courts and senior personnel testifying to the deep-rooted age discrimination prevailing in the company, IBM's future course of action remained uncertain. The verdict in these cases would have wider repercussions for the aging employees and age-related discrimination not only in the US but across the world.


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Can Thierry Delaporte Revive Wipro?
Smita Kulkarni, Syeda Maseeha Qumer and Syeda Ikrama

The case focuses on corporate restructuring at Wipro, one of the largest IT companies in India. Wipro's CEO, Thierry Delaporte, announced a huge restructuring exercise, the first since he took charge of the company in July 2020. The restructuring of the company was aimed at simplifying the existing organizational structure and driving growth in all markets beyond the US. Wipro, which was one of the leaders in the Indian IT space, had been witnessing a slump in revenues since 2012 compared to other IT peers. Its inability to adapt to new technologies, its conservative approach, unimpressive acquisitions, slow economic growth, growing competition, and unwarranted price concessions to clients were some of the reasons for its underperformance. As Delaporte embarked on a major restructuring at Wipro, the challenges before him would be to boost revenues, build a strong talent pool, strengthen market share, help the company regain its market position, and drive growth amidst the Covid-19 pandemic.


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Crisis at Papa John's Pizza: Fall of John Schnatter
Memendu Showry and Indu Perepu

This case describes the struggle of the US-based pizza chain Papa John's International Inc. (Papa John) to recover from the PR crisis. In 2018, the troubles for the company began when Forbes reported about the racial slur made by the founder of the company John H Schnatter (Schnatter). Forbes' article also detailed about the company's ‘toxic' culture and a number of deep-rooted issues involving Schnatter. Following the controversy, Schnatter had to step down as chairman of the company, but did not stop putting his foot in his mouth. In 2017, he lost his position as CEO after he set off an uproar by blaming the National Football League (NFL) players for the pizza chain's lagging sales. His statement led to a drop in sales. Further, marketing partners and consultants were breaking ties with the pizza chain. The numerous allegations against the founder posed a threat to the company's image. Struggling to put an end to the fiasco, the board of Papa John's finally decided to ward off Schnatter from the business by adopting ‘poison pill'.


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Ethical Dilemmas of Decision Making in a Crisis: Tragedy at Memorial Medical Center, New Orleans
Akbar N Jan, G V Muralidhara and Shwetha Kumari

The case study describes the moral dilemmas faced by the leaders, doctors, and nurses of Memorial Medical Center (Memorial), New Orleans, during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The hospital had no electricity, running water, or air conditioning. The temperature shot up to more than 110o Fahrenheit and the putrid smell of dead bodies burnt the back of the throat. Both chaos and heroism defined the scenes at Memorial; Memorial staff worked around the clock with few provisions to sustain them. Further, the case discusses the decision of the hospital leaders that patients with Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) orders should get the lowest priority as they had the least to lose. It then describes the triage conducted by Dr. Anna Marie Pou (Dr. Pou), a well-regarded head and neck surgeon. Later, Dr. Pou along with two nurses Cheri Landry, and Lori Budo, euthanized the DNR patients, although there was still hope of evacuation. The case ends with a discussion on the arrest of Dr. Pou, Cheri Landry, and Lori Budo for second-degree murder..


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Hindustan Unilever Limited: Providing the Right Work-Life Balance
Ashok Kumar Goute, Koti Vinod Babu and Namratha V Prasad

The case study discusses the initiatives taken by India's largest Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) company, Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL), to enable its employees to strike the right work-life balance. The case delves into details of HUL's various Human Resource (HR) policies and explains how each of the policies made the company's employees execute both work and personal responsibilities better. HUL's initiatives to cater to the varied needs of its women employees are explained in detail. The measures being taken by the company to keep itself abreast of the changing needs of new-age employees are also mentioned. So, will HUL continue to remain an ‘Employer of Choice' and a ‘CEO Factory' in India?


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IKEA's Talent Management and Corporate Culture
Mohammad Abdul Nayeem and Hadiya Faheem

The case discusses IKEA's talent management initiatives and its corporate culture. The retailer recruited employees based on values and beliefs rather than just on skills, experience, and other credentials. It fostered an ‘egalitarian culture' that offered full benefits even to part-time workers who worked for 20 hours or more per week. In 2017, global research and consulting firm Great Place to Work and Fortune named IKEA US among its 2017 Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For. Analysts opined that its talent management initiatives and its strong corporate culture provided IKEA with a competitive advantage.Though IKEA was touted to be an ideal employer in the retail market, it was hit with a lawsuit in the US court over alleged age discrimination in February 2019. Some IKEA employees stated that the retailer had fostered a culture of age discrimination wherein young workers were recruited and promoted over workers who were 40 years and older, thereby violating the Age Discrimination in Employment Act.


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Launchpad: The Internship Program at Flipkart
Jitesh Nair and Balaswamy Pasala

The case looks at the selection process and design of the internship programs offered by Flipkart for graduate and undergraduate students in India. It first describes the summer internship program offered to students pursuing their Bachelor's or Master's in computer science or business management who interned for two months in the software development, operations management, and product management roles. The case then talks about Launchpad, an internship program offered by ekart, the supply chain arm of Flipkart, since 2019 for undergraduate students. The 45-day internship program was designed to introduce students to work in Flipkart's supply chain. It ends with a look at Flipkart's focus on becoming a value player in the Tier-II cities of India as part of its long-term business strategy.


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Microsoft: Building a Collaborative Work Culture to Foster Innovation
Radha Mohan Chebolu and Jitesh Nair

The case describes how Microsoft, a market leader in desktop computing in 1995 with a 95% market share, faced its share of problems from 2000 to 2010 with existing products losing market share and new products not taking off. Microsoft executives blamed the system of stack ranking for the lack of innovation in the company compared to competitors like Google and Apple. Upon realizing this, Microsoft ditched its traditional performance management system in 2013 and took several initiatives to help create a new Performance and Development (P&D) system. The new P&D system focused on employees' skills and competencies and facilitated open conversations. Through ‘Connects', employees received real-time feedback that helped them learn, grow, and focus on their strengths and key learning areas. Satya Nadella's push for a cultural shift and a growth mindset created an enthusiasm for a new era of innovation at Microsoft. These efforts to improve innovation, collaboration, and communication also led to a business shift. In November 2019, Microsoft achieved a one-trillion-dollar valuation, a 200% increase since Satya Nadella became CEO in 2014.


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Safety Culture at General Motors Post the Ignition Switch Recall Crisis
Sireesha Mamidenna and Balaswamy Pasala

The case study describes how faulty ignition switches in some car models of General Motors (GM) led to one of the biggest recalls in the history of the US automobile industry. The recall happened almost 10 years after customers first complained about safety issues related to the ignition switch that automatically turned the car's engine off while the vehicle was in motion and caused non-deployment of airbags during crashes. The defect was linked to 124 deaths and 275 injuries and GM paid about $2.6 bn in penalties and settlements, including the fine. The case looks into the various reasons identified for this fiasco when Mary Barra, soon after becoming the CEO of GM in 2014, appointed a law firm Jenner & Block LLP and former US Attorney Anton Valukas to conduct a thorough investigation into the circumstances that led to the recall. One of the primary observations of the Valukas Report was the absence of a culture of safety at GM. The report also cited issues related to working in silos that impacted cross-functional communication and technical operations. GM undertook a number of measures to bring about a change in its safety culture.


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Competency-Based Human Resource Management
Authors: Anindya Basu Roy and Sumati Ray Reviewed by Sitamma Mikkilineni


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Building a High Performance Culture Based on the Book No Rules Rules: Netflix and the Culture of Reinvention
Authors: Reed Hastings and Erin Meyer Reviewed by AV Ved Puriswar


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