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Welcome to the IUP Journal of Soil and Water Sciences


Previous Issues

Soil and water sciences is the study of "the living land". It is a fundamental part of the environment and the basis for life on planet earth. However, man's intervention is today affecting aquatic systems and atmosphere through ecosystem interactions. Pollution of soil and water resources, erosion and soil depletion, among other environmental changes, are seriously impacting the ecosystem and further curtailing man's ability to produce food. All these man-made crises calls for more intensive research in this field. Befitting the challenging times that the world is passing through, IUP has come up with a quarterly journal—The IUP Journal of Soil and Water Sciences—with the sole objective of disseminating new knowledge that has a significant bearing on the sustainability of natural systems and economic growth, among the academia to trigger further research into soil and water systems for making them more productive on a sustainable basis.

  • Soil Genesis
  • Classification and Morphology
  • Pedology
  • Soil Behavior
  • Soil Dynamics and Soil Physics
  • Soil and Aquatic Chemistry
  • Water Resources
  • Soil-Water-Plant Relations
  • Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition
  • Clay Mineral Formation
  • Ecotoxicology of Soils and Sediments
  • Rain Water Harvesting
  • Micro-Irrigation
  • Industrial Waste Management
  • Hydro-Meteorology and Irrigation
  • Bioremediation and Phyto Remediation
Development of Flood Frequency Curves over Godavari Basin
Predicting River Floods Using Discrete Wavelet Transform
Sediment Nutrient Dynamics of a Naturally Disturbed and Eutrophic Lake Ecosystem
Spatial Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Kerala, India
Effect of Soil Waste Interaction on Geotechnical Properties of Fine-Grained Soils: A Review
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(February 2012)

Development of Flood Frequency Curves over Godavari Basin

-- D Srinivasa Murthy, T Jyothirmai, T Sridhar Rao,
K Radha Krishna and M L Anoop Kumar

In the planning and design of major hydraulic structures and projects such as large reservoirs, it is essential to predict the magnitude and frequency of the maximum flood known as the design flood. For this purpose, flood frequency analysis is carried out, but this analysis needs a long record of flood data. Presently, a case study of Godavari basin with four gauging sites was undertaken with a view to predicting the floods of different return periods. Initially, flood frequency analysis was carried out by four different methods, namely, Gumbel’s, Log Normal, Log Pearson Type III and Foster’s methods, for the flood data of each of the four gauging sites so as to identify the most appropriate method. The results of the above investigations are analyzed and discussed and useful conclusions are arrived at.

Predicting River Floods Using Discrete Wavelet Transform

-- Rajeev Ranjan Sahay and Anirban Chakraborty

The paper demonstrates the efficiency of wavelet regression (WR) in estimating floods in rivers when the only data available is historical flow series. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposes the flow series into constituent wavelet components, i.e., approximations and details. A modified flow series is then constructed after removing the most fluctuating components and recombining other wavelet components. The modified flow series forms the input basis for WR implementation. Autoregressive (AR) models, developed for the comparison purpose, were implemented on the original flow series. A case study of developed models was made using monsoon flood data of the Kosi River at Birpur gauge site in the Bihar state of India. Based on various performance indices, it can be concluded that WR models forecast floods with greater accuracy than AR models.

Sediment Nutrient Dynamics of a Naturally Disturbed and Eutrophic Lake Ecosystem

-- S N Bramha, K K Satpathy, S Panigrahi, A K Mohanty,
M K Samantara, R K Padhi and M V R Prasad

Sediment characteristics were examined in a brackish water lake (Kokilamedu Lake) to find out the nutrient dynamics and its relation to particle size distribution. The lake was inundated by December-2004 tsunami changing it from almost fresh to a brackish water lake. The lake is relatively shallow (1.20 m) at the northern part as compared to the southern region (2.80 m). Analysis of surface sediment revealed that it is basically silty-sand in nature with sand, silt and clay fractions ranging from 63.87-94.62% , 1.60-32.39% and 0.63-14.17% respectively. Sediment of northern portion of the lake is sand dominated in contrast to relatively high silt and clay containing sediment of the southern section. The organic matter (0.62-3.93%) and organic carbon (0.36-2.28%) concentrations were relatively high in silt and clay sediment. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) ranged from 0.23-6.25% and it showed relatively higher values towards northern part. All the nutrients, such as NO3-N (1.42-3.40 mg/kg), NH4-N (10.96-68.53 mg/kg), total nitrogen (55.49-238.06 mg/kg), inorganic phosphorus (144.37-280.26 mg/kg) and total phosphorus (140.13-402.70 mg/kg), showed a similar spatial distribution trend with concentrations gradually decreasing from southern to northern section of the lake. Correlation analysis showed that all the nutrients were positively correlated with silt and clay as well as with organic carbon. The high organic carbon rich clayey southern bottom of the lake indicates a sink of terrestrial organic source which significantly contributes nutrients to the eutrophic water column through different biochemical processes. Lack of connectivity and exchange of water with other water bodies further enhances the nutrient accumulation in the bottom of the lake.

Spatial Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Kerala, India

-- Boominathan M, Karthick B, Sameer Ali and Ramachandra T V

Groundwater is located in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations under subsurface. Pollutants leached to the ground make their way down into groundwater and contaminate an aquifer. The study focuses on the physicochemical and biological quality of groundwater spatially in Kerala to assess its suitability for drinking and understand the type of hydrochemicals and spatial distribution of major ions. Groundwater samples from 98 locations covering all districts in Kerala state, India were collected and analyzed, as per standard protocol. The results revealed that fecal coliform bacteria and pH were exceeding in many places. Nitrates exceeded permissible limits in two samples which contained 45.3 mg/L and 50 mg/L at Kayamkulam (Alappuzha) and Old Munnar (Idukki). Fluorides exceeded the desirable limit (1 mg/L) at Mullackal (1.4 mg/L) and Kalikulam Junction (1.2 mg/L) in Alappuzha district and Kollengode (1.6 mg/L) in Palakkad district. Hydrochemical types, relationship among the physicochemical parameters, characterization of sampling sites according to the physicochemical and biological characters and the spatial distribution of major ions are also discussed.

Effect of Soil Waste Interaction on Geotechnical Properties of Fine-Grained Soils: A Review

-- A V Narasimha Rao and M Chittaranjan

The rapid growth in industrial, commercial, mining, agricultural and domestic activities causes generation of huge quantities of solid and liquid wastes. When rain water percolates through these wastes, it is mixed with organic and inorganic chemicals generating ‘Leachate’. Depending upon the nature of chemicals present in the leachate, it will have different dielectric constants, electrolyte concentrations, cation valencies, pH and temperatures which may cause change in the thickness of diffuse double layer of fine-grained soils. The change in thickness of diffused double layer controls various geotechnical properties of the fine-grained soils. In this paper, the effects of change in thickness of diffused double layer due to change in pore fluid chemistry on various geotechnical properties of fine-grained soils, such as Consistency limits, Hydraulic conductivity, Compaction parameters, Swelling characteristics, Shear strength and Compressibility, are critically discussed.




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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.