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The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development


Entrepreneurial Team and Performance in Lombardy SMEs: An Empirical Study

-- Marco Talaia and Serena Mascherpa

Identifying which factors affect firms' performance is a critical issue. Within International Entrepreneurship stream of search, most of the extant studies have focused on the individual entrepreneur, with Entrepreneurial Team (ET) neglected in the literature. Our paper addresses the influence of ET over the behavior and performance of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). We argue that the ET is decisive in SMEs, inasmuch as the lack of resources push them to rely more on their ET. Based on a survey of 269 Lombardy SMEs, we have demonstrated that some ET features have a crucial role in the determination of performance.

An Analysis of the Role of Self-Employment in the Economic Development
of the Rural Northeastern United States

-- Saima Bashir, Tesfa Gebremedhin and Jerald J Fletcher

Generating employment and alleviating poverty are the biggest challenges for regional economic growth in the rural areas of the Northeastern United States. Despite the revival of the economy in much of the nation’s heartland, rural areas are still suffering from high poverty and unemployment rates. Selfemployment, a measure of entrepreneurship, indicates an opportunity for rural communities to improve the quality of life and accelerate regional economic development. Taking into consideration the problem of unemployment in rural communities, there is a need to focus on generating self-employment opportunities at micro level to enhance economic growth and reduce the per capita income ‘gap’ between rural and urban areas. The overall objective of the study is to identify and estimate the impacts of self-employment in the economic development of the Northeastern United States. The empirical model of this study is derived from the three-equation simultaneous model of Deller et al. (2001). The study estimated the relationship of employment, population and per capita income to self-employment. Research findings show that employment and population have a positive relationship to self-employment, indicating positive contribution of self-employment to regional economic development.

Entrepreneurship in Biotechnology Sector

-- Divya Christopher and Simarpreet Kaur

Setting up a business or a venture in the area of biotechnology sector is known as bioentrepreneurship. Although this concept is fairly new in India, it provides the bioentrepreneurs with great opportunities for growth and advancement because the industry is growing at a rate of 25%. Particularly notable are the areas of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, diagnostics, seed hybrids, recombinant DNA technology, monoclonal antibodies and gene therapy. A bioentrepreneur may start his venture in a number of ways, but the most common way involves identifying the need for a product and its benefits for all the major stakeholders. In order to become an entrepreneur, you don’t need to follow any formal path. You must be motivated enough and must communicate well in order to deal in a business environment. However, to be able to set a business as an entrepreneur, one must be able to overcome the major hindrances which include high early stage investment, the technology associated with the development of new biotech products, high risks associated with the investments and the availability of fewer amounts of exit options for the investors. The prime purpose of this research is to develop the abstract concept of bioentrepreneurship, categorize its main dimensions and substantiate its theoretical validity and viability, without testing its empirical relevance. One of the objectives is also to briefly study and exhibit bioentrepreneurship as the key driver of the new bioeconomy.

Entrepreneurial Propensity and Its Relation to Self-Employment Intentions Among Engineering and Business Students: A Comparative Case Study

-- S A Vasantha Kumara and Y Vijaya Kumar

For decades, questions as to why some college educated professionals seek entrepreneurial career and others do not have remained largely unanswered. Entrepreneurial Propensity (EP) measures ones proclivity for choosing an entrepreneurship career. It is a combination of three dimensions: perceived level of entrepreneurial education, beliefs concerning entrepreneurial opportunities in the economy, and one’s confidence in one’s ability to access the available opportunities. In this case study, a questionnaire consisting of EP scale and self-employment intentions along with demographics was administered to 172 students (97 final and pre-final year BE students and 75 second semester MBA students) at Dayananda Sagar Institutions, Bangalore. The research instrument measured high validity and reliability. Using tests on correlation coefficients and ANOVA, it was observed that the demographics have little influence on EP and intentions among both BE and MBA students. Partial least squared regression path analysis indicated that EP and self-employment intentions are strongly related. Prospective entrepreneurs were identified who scored high both in EP and intentions. However, large sample studies confirm the above findings. This study enables Entrepreneurship Trainers and Motivators to identify specific training needs and design competency-based curriculum for Entrepreneurship Education.



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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.


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