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The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development


Gender and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Study Among BITS-Pilani Students

--Swati Alok, Nithya Kocherlakota and Satwik Beernelly

The present study has two objectives: to test the possible influence of the Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in predicting Entrepreneurial Intentions (EI), and to explore the role of TPB in explaining the potential gender differences in intention formation. Ajzen’s TPB, in which intentions are regarded as a result of Attitude (A) towards entrepreneurship, Subjective Norms (SN) and Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC), is employed. Data is gathered through questionnaire survey from 220 undergraduate engineering students of BITS-Pilani University. The effects of the TPB variables and gender on the EI were examined using multiple regressions. 2x2 ANOVA was performed to explain the gender differences in intention development. The results reveal that PBC and attitude are the strongest predictors of EI. Unlike male students, female students are less interested in entrepreneurship due to their low score on PBC. Females exhibited a low level of aptitude towards creativity, recognition of opportunity, problem-solving skills and business ideas. The paper emphasizes the role of governments and educational institutions in enhancing the self-efficacy of female students by providing social networking platform, exposure to role models, mentoring programs, and customized training. There are ongoing discussions among the academia and the policy makers that enhancing the confidence level will eventually lead to the increase in women entrepreneurs. This paper hopes to add richness to that discussion.

A Study on the Development of Entrepreneurial Skills by Masonry Workers Migrating from Rural to Urban Areas

--R Raghunath Reddy

The present paper attempts to understand the entrepreneurial skills developed by migrant masonry workers in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana by examining the nature of change in working skills that migration brings in the people who migrate from rural to urban areas. It is observed that the decision to migrate is taken by individuals or by the household as expressed by the 60 seasonal workers who were interviewed. The reason for the decision is based on factors like no income-generating opportunities at the place of origin and more opportunities at the place of destination, which are referred to as the push and pull factor. The survey reveals that over a period of 15-20 years, the migrant workers attain the skills of masonry and become independent contractors.

Entrepreneurial Leadership: A Conceptual Examination

--Jose Mathews

Entrepreneurial leadership involves the core process of leading in the entrepreneurial situation of creating new values. The study of entrepreneurial leadership in many ways parallels the study of leadership in organizational settings. Like the leadership research, the multiple approaches adopted in the study of entrepreneurial leadership include the trait approach, the contingency approach and the new-genre approach in explaining the effectiveness of entrepreneurial leadership. An eclectic approach to entrepreneurial leadership by drawing upon the key process of other perspectives presents a holistic view of effectiveness. Entrepreneurship and leadership are complementary to each other that there is no entrepreneurship without leadership and all leaders are necessarily entrepreneurs in their leading and entrepreneurial activities. However, in theory and practice, there is a lack of consensus among researchers as some give importance to the entrepreneurial facet of entrepreneurial leadership, and yet others prefer to deal with the leading processes of entrepreneurship. In this study, an attempt is made to understand the concept of entrepreneurial leadership in a holistic framework.

Case Study
Bandhan: Commercializing a Social Cause

--Anupriya Chaturvedi and D Satish

Bandhan Financial Services Pvt. Ltd. (Bandhan), the largest microfinance institution in India, got an ‘in principle’ approval in April 2014 from India’s central bank, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), to start full-fledged banking operations. Bandhan, which had been formed by Chandra Shekhar Ghosh with the social motive of giving small loans to the asset-less poor in unbanked regions of India, would now have to change its business model to play on a bigger turf and on a larger scale. While transforming itself into a bank would give it benefits like access to cheaper funds and increased scope of operations, the considerable liberty it enjoyed by being a microfinance entity would be lost.



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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.


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