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The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development


Rural Entrepreneurship: An Innovative Approach to Rural Mobile Telecom Services Marketing

--Lokesh Jasrai

Mobile telecom service industry in India enjoyed a high growth rate during the last decade but is now struggling to maintain a sustainable growth rate due to deterioration of key operating metrics, leverages, financial metrics, high operating costs, and disparity of teledensity between rural and urban India. The purpose of this study is to provide a conceptual framework of rural entrepreneurship with the aim to enhance adoption and consumption of mobile telecom services in bottom-of-pyramid markets. On the basis of extensive review of literature and three case studies drawn from Asian telecom firms, viz., Village Phone Program – Bangladesh and Smart Communication Inc. Philippines, and Celtel International – Nigeria, various partners such as mobile telecom operators, microfinance agencies, rural entrepreneurs, local community and regulating bodies have been identified as the major stakeholders in the suggested model.

An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of NGOs on Rural Development
in Himachal Pradesh

--Nisha Sharma

Development of rural areas is important for India because nearly 78% of its population lives in villages, and the development of India, by and large, lies in the development of its rural population. Non-Governmental Organizations, (NGOs) with their advantages of being non-rigid, locality-specific, felt need-based, beneficiary-oriented and committed nature of service, have established a multitude of roles that affect development. In the present study, the opinion of the sampled respondents regarding rural development with the help of NGOs in fields like construction of link roads, irrigation facilities and preservation of natural sources of water, watershed development, plantation of medicinal plants, development of cash crops, awareness about modern technologies in cultivation and harvesting, total sanitation campaign, development of sericulture units, disseminating awareness about wormy compost and social audit, promotion of organic farming and implementation of MGNREGA is collected and analyzed. It is clear from the study that the NGOs have definitely added wheels to rural development in Himachal Pradesh.

Ambitions, Compelling Reasons and Facilitating Factors Influencing Microentrepreneurs in Mizoram

--Lalhunthara and N V R Jyoti Kumar

Mizoram, a small state in North-East India being a landlocked state and predominantly an agricultural economy, lags far behind than the rest of the country as far as industrial development is concerned. Mizoram is a tribal dominated state and more than 60% of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. The state has no major industries worth mentioning and the entire state has been notified as industrially backward due to nonexistence of large or medium industries. In this context, micro and small enterprises play an important role in the industrial scenario of the state. This paper attempts to trace the ambitions, compelling reasons and facilitating factors that induced microentrepreneurs to start entrepreneurial activities in Aizawl district, of Mizoram, that is considered to represent the entire state.

Problems of Quality Management in Small and Medium Enterprises: A Factor Analytical Study

--Anil Kumar and Raj Kumar

This paper examines the problems of quality management faced by entrepreneurs of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by analyzing a sample of 350 entrepreneurs selected from five states in Northern India. Using factor analytical technique, the various problems relating to quality management are reduced to five factors. These are problem of application of human resource practices, difficulty in adopting acceptable quality standard, work overload, lack of joint planning, and lack of financial resources. Then, one-way and two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique is applied to find significant difference in the age and education of the entrepreneurs for various problems that emerged from factor solution. Based on the results of the study the following are suggested: The entrepreneurs should go for regular training programs in the area of quality management in addition to other areas of management. Institutions involved in entrepreneurship development should lay more emphasis on this emerging area. Government should provide long-term financial resources through better banking system at lower rates to facilitate adoption of quality management. There should be constant interaction between the industrial organizations of large, medium and small enterprises.



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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.


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