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The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development


Entrepreneurship Development: A New Strategy

--D Nagayya and Balla Appa Rao

The paper focuses on the new directions and strategies of entrepreneurship, innovation and inclusiveness through two programs launched by the center: (i) Start-up India on January 16, 2016, for which the nodal agency is Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), and (ii) Stand-up India on April 5, 2016, for which the nodal agency is Development Commissioner Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME). Start-up India program, as outlined in the action plan, refers to promotion of innovative enterprises with considerable amount of research and development work carried out in collaboration with higher educational and scientific research institutions. Technology business incubators promoted for this purpose are normally established in collaboration with a host higher educational institution or scientific research body. To facilitate the youth to take up innovative ventures, creating a favorable and liberal ecosystem is a prerequisite. Easier entry and faster exit are emphasized for the success of these enterprises which involve high risk. Opportunities and challenges are presented in the paper along with strategies. In this program, the key players that deserve special mention are Department of Science and Technology (DST), and DIPP from Government of India, and Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) among development financial institutions. Stand-up India program refers to promotion of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) by women and SC/STs across the country with focus on rural and semi-urban areas, and remote and less developed regions. This speaks of inclusiveness. Entrepreneurs promoting MSMEs can pursue these high potential directions which are prone to high risk and yield high reward.

Intervening Factors in Entrepreneurial Performance: An Exploratory Analysis of Women Self-Help Groups

--Annesha Saha and Chinmoy Roy

Improving the performance by identifying and removing the inhibiting constraints that would otherwise slow income-generating activities is currently a top priority area for leader-manager in the realm of running team works in general and for the Self-Help Groups (SHGs) involved in economic activity in the developing economies in particular. Rural women are increasingly taking interest in numerous entrepreneurial activities by creating a seamless process with their integration-minded colleagues. This study intends to identify the major factors that underlie the entrepreneurial performance of Women Self-Help Groups (WSHGs). Data was collected using questionnaire from 300 WSHGs using purposive sampling from all the districts of the northeastern state of Tripura to identify those contributing factors that are supportive to the congenial growth of the rural women entrepreneurs. The findings identified four major factors with 16 components and revealed that approaches and assessments towards training, marketing, financing and perceived managerial competencies relating to the operation and functioning of the collective business activities are strongly related to group savings, which in turn directly affects group performance. Perceived managerial or leadership competencies and practices were found to reflect both internal and external impediments, many of which relate to financing, marketing and training issues that are not within the control of the group. These results may have implications for improving the performance through more productive training, extended credit, expanding the markets and creative managerial initiatives, and warrant further research focusing on the activities of the WSHGs at regional and national level.

Socioeconomic Empowerment of Women Through Apparel-Making Entrepreneurship: A Study on Kudumbashree Women Self-Help Group

--M Krishnakumar, Mukthy Sumangala and Jeena Maria John

The socioeconomic condition of women is the key for overall growth and development of a country. The economic status of women is now accepted as an indicator of the stage of development. The present paper aims at studying the socioeconomic empowerment of women who are involved in apparel making under a women self-help group program called Kudumbashree of Kerala state government in India. The main objective is to understand the socioeconomic empowerment, the problems faced by women entrepreneurs when they set up their units and to assess the impact of Kudumbashree activities on women entrepreneurs in the apparel sector. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among the Kudumbashree apparel-making division of women in the Ernakulum district of Kerala. A sample size of 40 apparel-making units involving 120 women was taken. The results show that this program has made a significant positive impact on the socioeconomic empowerment of women in Kerala.

Women Entrepreneurship in Assam: What Motivates Them for a Successful Entrepreneurial Career

--Suman Sarmah

An entrepreneurial career can help women empower themselves. This can enable them to play a constructive role in their families and the society as a whole. The present study is conducted to determine the factors influencing the choice of an entrepreneurial career among women. Primary data was collected through survey method with the help of a structured questionnaire. The data was collected from 232 respondents who are women wishing to become entrepreneurs. The results reveal that personal development, being independent, achieving recognition in society, high ambition, dissatisfaction with present career, and obtaining less stressful work schedule than the present job are the main reasons that may motivate a woman to become an entrepreneur. Besides, need for application of newer innovation, creating employment opportunities, better flexibility to look after family responsibilities, and continuing family business may moderately motivate a woman to become an entrepreneur. In addition, factors like risk-taking ability, determination, creativity and innovation, initiative, efficiency, resourcefulness, intelligence, and dynamism and leadership may also moderately motivate a woman to become an entrepreneur.



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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.


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